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Entomological and serological investigation of Japanese encephalitis in endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.
J Vector Borne Dis. 2015 Dec; 52(4):321-8.JV

Abstract

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito borne pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The objective of this work was to evaluate the entomological based virological surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in the highly endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

METHODS

The study was carried out during September 2010 to March 2013 in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 251 adult mosquito pools and 64 water samples containing larvae were collected from the District of Gorakhpur. Water pH, turbidity, and oxygen level were analyzed for vector breeding index (BI). In addition, 393 serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) suspected cases were collected from the district hospital.

RESULTS

The various Culex species found included, Cx. quinquefasciatus (26.83%), Cx. vishnui (22.29%), Cx. pseudovishnui (20.73%), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (12.71%), Cx. whitmorei (9.04%), and Cx. gelidus (8.25%). Highest minimum infection rate (MIR) was calculated for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (2.32), followed by Cx. vishnui (1.98) and Cx. pseudovishnui (0.71). All the larvae samples were negative for JEV. The mean number larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. pseudovishnui was negatively correlated with pH (r = - 0.45 and r = - 0.63) and turbidity (r = - 0.30 and r = - 0.37). In contrast, positive correlation was observed in case of Cx. quinquefasciatus. A total of 41 clinical samples were found positive for JEV by IgM ELISA. The rainfall was significantly associated with Japanese encephalitis incidence and showed positive correlation to disease transmission (p = 0.02, r = 0. 66).

INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION

The findings showed the rapid dissemination of JEV within a population, facilitated by different species of Culex in the region. As JE is a vaccine-preventable disease, an immunization programme, an effective vector control strategy and application of standard hygiene practices in these endemic areas could result in a considerable reduction in morbidity and mortality due to JE.

Authors+Show Affiliations

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableDepartment of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26714513

Citation

Nyari, Nikky, et al. "Entomological and Serological Investigation of Japanese Encephalitis in Endemic Area of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India." Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, vol. 52, no. 4, 2015, pp. 321-8.
Nyari N, Singh D, Kakkar K, et al. Entomological and serological investigation of Japanese encephalitis in endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2015;52(4):321-8.
Nyari, N., Singh, D., Kakkar, K., Sharma, S., Pandey, S. N., & Dhole, T. N. (2015). Entomological and serological investigation of Japanese encephalitis in endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 52(4), 321-8.
Nyari N, et al. Entomological and Serological Investigation of Japanese Encephalitis in Endemic Area of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2015;52(4):321-8. PubMed PMID: 26714513.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Entomological and serological investigation of Japanese encephalitis in endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. AU - Nyari,Nikky, AU - Singh,Dharamveer, AU - Kakkar,Kavita, AU - Sharma,Swati, AU - Pandey,S N, AU - Dhole,T N, PY - 2015/12/31/entrez PY - 2015/12/31/pubmed PY - 2016/10/7/medline SP - 321 EP - 8 JF - Journal of vector borne diseases JO - J Vector Borne Dis VL - 52 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito borne pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The objective of this work was to evaluate the entomological based virological surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in the highly endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh. METHODS: The study was carried out during September 2010 to March 2013 in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 251 adult mosquito pools and 64 water samples containing larvae were collected from the District of Gorakhpur. Water pH, turbidity, and oxygen level were analyzed for vector breeding index (BI). In addition, 393 serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) suspected cases were collected from the district hospital. RESULTS: The various Culex species found included, Cx. quinquefasciatus (26.83%), Cx. vishnui (22.29%), Cx. pseudovishnui (20.73%), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (12.71%), Cx. whitmorei (9.04%), and Cx. gelidus (8.25%). Highest minimum infection rate (MIR) was calculated for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (2.32), followed by Cx. vishnui (1.98) and Cx. pseudovishnui (0.71). All the larvae samples were negative for JEV. The mean number larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. pseudovishnui was negatively correlated with pH (r = - 0.45 and r = - 0.63) and turbidity (r = - 0.30 and r = - 0.37). In contrast, positive correlation was observed in case of Cx. quinquefasciatus. A total of 41 clinical samples were found positive for JEV by IgM ELISA. The rainfall was significantly associated with Japanese encephalitis incidence and showed positive correlation to disease transmission (p = 0.02, r = 0. 66). INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The findings showed the rapid dissemination of JEV within a population, facilitated by different species of Culex in the region. As JE is a vaccine-preventable disease, an immunization programme, an effective vector control strategy and application of standard hygiene practices in these endemic areas could result in a considerable reduction in morbidity and mortality due to JE. SN - 0972-9062 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26714513/Entomological_and_serological_investigation_of_Japanese_encephalitis_in_endemic_area_of_eastern_Uttar_Pradesh_India_ L2 - http://www.mrcindia.org/journal/issues/524321.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -