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Protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in kidney epithelium by Angelica and Astragalus.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Feb 17; 179:412-9.JE

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE

Astragalus membranaceus either alone or in combination with Angelica sinensis has been used traditionally for kidney disease in East Asia and China for thousands of years. Previous studies using in vivo animal models have shown the benefits of these medicinal herbs in kidney diseases that involve oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms by which these medicinal herbs protect kidney cells remain largely unknown.

AIM OF THE STUDY

To investigate the mechanisms by which ethanol, methanol and aqueous crude extracts of roots of A. membranaceus and A. sinensis afford protection to human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells, using an in vitro model of oxidative stress.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of roots of A. membranaceus and A. sinensis were prepared by a three-solvent sequential process. HK2 human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells were treated with H2O2 alone (0.5mM) or in combination with different concentrations of extracts. Cell mitosis and death (microscopy) and cell viability (MTT assay) were compared. Western immunoblot was used to study expression of apoptosis-related proteins (pro-apoptotic Bax andanti-apoptotic Bcl-XL), and cell survival (NFκB subunits p65 and p50), pro-inflammatory (TNF-α) and protective (TGFβ1) proteins.

RESULTS

H2O2-induced oxidative stress significantly increased apoptosis and reduced cell survival; upregulated pro-apoptotic and down-regulated Bcl-XL; increased NFκB (p65, p50); increased TNFα and decreased TGFβ1. All changes indicated kidney damage and dysfunction. All were modulated by all extracts of both plant species, except for NFκB which was only modulated by extracts of A. membranaceus.

CONCLUSIONS

In conclusion, in a model of oxidative stress that might occur after nephrotoxicity, the plant extracts were protective via anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Kidney Disease Research, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia; Department of Pharmacology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.Centre for Kidney Disease Research, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.Centre for Kidney Disease Research, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.Department of Natural and Complementary Medicine, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia.Department of Pharmacology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.Centre for Kidney Disease Research, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address: g.gobe@uq.edu.au.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26719285

Citation

Shahzad, Muhammad, et al. "Protection Against Oxidative Stress-induced Apoptosis in Kidney Epithelium By Angelica and Astragalus." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 179, 2016, pp. 412-9.
Shahzad M, Small DM, Morais C, et al. Protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in kidney epithelium by Angelica and Astragalus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;179:412-9.
Shahzad, M., Small, D. M., Morais, C., Wojcikowski, K., Shabbir, A., & Gobe, G. C. (2016). Protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in kidney epithelium by Angelica and Astragalus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 179, 412-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.12.027
Shahzad M, et al. Protection Against Oxidative Stress-induced Apoptosis in Kidney Epithelium By Angelica and Astragalus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Feb 17;179:412-9. PubMed PMID: 26719285.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in kidney epithelium by Angelica and Astragalus. AU - Shahzad,Muhammad, AU - Small,David M, AU - Morais,Christudas, AU - Wojcikowski,Ken, AU - Shabbir,Arham, AU - Gobe,Glenda C, Y1 - 2015/12/21/ PY - 2015/06/02/received PY - 2015/12/06/revised PY - 2015/12/20/accepted PY - 2016/1/1/entrez PY - 2016/1/1/pubmed PY - 2016/12/15/medline KW - Apoptosis KW - Inflammation KW - Kidney epithelium KW - Oxidative stress KW - TNF-α SP - 412 EP - 9 JF - Journal of ethnopharmacology JO - J Ethnopharmacol VL - 179 N2 - ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astragalus membranaceus either alone or in combination with Angelica sinensis has been used traditionally for kidney disease in East Asia and China for thousands of years. Previous studies using in vivo animal models have shown the benefits of these medicinal herbs in kidney diseases that involve oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms by which these medicinal herbs protect kidney cells remain largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the mechanisms by which ethanol, methanol and aqueous crude extracts of roots of A. membranaceus and A. sinensis afford protection to human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells, using an in vitro model of oxidative stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of roots of A. membranaceus and A. sinensis were prepared by a three-solvent sequential process. HK2 human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells were treated with H2O2 alone (0.5mM) or in combination with different concentrations of extracts. Cell mitosis and death (microscopy) and cell viability (MTT assay) were compared. Western immunoblot was used to study expression of apoptosis-related proteins (pro-apoptotic Bax andanti-apoptotic Bcl-XL), and cell survival (NFκB subunits p65 and p50), pro-inflammatory (TNF-α) and protective (TGFβ1) proteins. RESULTS: H2O2-induced oxidative stress significantly increased apoptosis and reduced cell survival; upregulated pro-apoptotic and down-regulated Bcl-XL; increased NFκB (p65, p50); increased TNFα and decreased TGFβ1. All changes indicated kidney damage and dysfunction. All were modulated by all extracts of both plant species, except for NFκB which was only modulated by extracts of A. membranaceus. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, in a model of oxidative stress that might occur after nephrotoxicity, the plant extracts were protective via anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. SN - 1872-7573 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26719285/Protection_against_oxidative_stress_induced_apoptosis_in_kidney_epithelium_by_Angelica_and_Astragalus_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-8741(15)30278-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -