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Estrogen Metabolism and Risk of Postmenopausal Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer: the B ∼ FIT Cohort.
Horm Cancer. 2016 Feb; 7(1):49-64.HC

Abstract

Estrogen metabolites may have different genotoxic and mitogenic properties yet their relationship with endometrial and ovarian cancer risk remains unclear. Within the Breast and Bone Follow-up to the Fracture Intervention Trial (B ∼ FIT, n = 15,595), we conducted a case-cohort study to evaluate 15 pre-diagnostic serum estrogens and estrogen metabolites with risk of incident endometrial and ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women not on hormone therapy. Participants included 66 endometrial and 67 ovarian cancer cases diagnosed during follow-up (∼ 10 years) and subcohorts of 346 and 416 women, respectively, after relevant exclusions. Serum concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Exposures were categorized in tertiles (T) and analyzed individually, as metabolic pathways (C-2, -4, or -16) and as ratios to parent estrogens (estradiol, estrone). Estradiol was significantly associated with increased endometrial cancer risk (BMI-adjusted HRT3vsT1 = 4.09, 95% CI 1.70, 9.85; p trend = 0.003). 2-Hydroxyestrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone were not associated with endometrial risk after estradiol adjustment (2-OHE1:HRT3vsT1 = 1.97, 95% CI 0.78, 4.94; 16-OHE1:HRT3vsT1 = 1.50, 95% CI 0.65, 3.46; p trend = 0.16 and 0.36, respectively). Ratios of 2- and 4-pathway catechol-to-methylated estrogens remained positively associated with endometrial cancer after BMI or estradiol adjustment (2-pathway catechols-to-methylated: HRT3vsT1 = 4.02, 95% CI 1.60, 10.1; 4-pathway catechols-to-methylated: HRT3vsT1 = 4.59, 95% CI 1.64, 12.9; p trend = 0.002 for both). Estrogens and estrogen metabolites were not associated with ovarian cancer risk; however, larger studies are needed to better evaluate these relationships. Estrogen metabolism may be important in endometrial carcinogenesis, particularly with less extensive methylation of 2- or 4-pathway catechols associated with elevated endometrial cancer risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD, 20742, USA. cdallal@umd.edu. Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. cdallal@umd.edu.Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.C2N Diagnostics, Saint Louis, MO, USA. Cancer Research Technology Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MA, USA.Cancer Research Technology Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MA, USA.Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26728471

Citation

Dallal, Cher M., et al. "Estrogen Metabolism and Risk of Postmenopausal Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer: the B ∼ FIT Cohort." Hormones & Cancer, vol. 7, no. 1, 2016, pp. 49-64.
Dallal CM, Lacey JV, Pfeiffer RM, et al. Estrogen Metabolism and Risk of Postmenopausal Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer: the B ∼ FIT Cohort. Horm Cancer. 2016;7(1):49-64.
Dallal, C. M., Lacey, J. V., Pfeiffer, R. M., Bauer, D. C., Falk, R. T., Buist, D. S., Cauley, J. A., Hue, T. F., LaCroix, A. Z., Tice, J. A., Veenstra, T. D., Xu, X., & Brinton, L. A. (2016). Estrogen Metabolism and Risk of Postmenopausal Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer: the B ∼ FIT Cohort. Hormones & Cancer, 7(1), 49-64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12672-015-0237-y
Dallal CM, et al. Estrogen Metabolism and Risk of Postmenopausal Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer: the B ∼ FIT Cohort. Horm Cancer. 2016;7(1):49-64. PubMed PMID: 26728471.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Estrogen Metabolism and Risk of Postmenopausal Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer: the B ∼ FIT Cohort. AU - Dallal,Cher M, AU - Lacey,James V,Jr AU - Pfeiffer,Ruth M, AU - Bauer,Douglas C, AU - Falk,Roni T, AU - Buist,Diana S M, AU - Cauley,Jane A, AU - Hue,Trisha F, AU - LaCroix,Andrea Z, AU - Tice,Jeffrey A, AU - Veenstra,Timothy D, AU - Xu,Xia, AU - Brinton,Louise A, AU - ,, Y1 - 2016/01/04/ PY - 2015/07/13/received PY - 2015/10/16/accepted PY - 2016/1/6/entrez PY - 2016/1/6/pubmed PY - 2016/11/12/medline SP - 49 EP - 64 JF - Hormones & cancer JO - Horm Cancer VL - 7 IS - 1 N2 - Estrogen metabolites may have different genotoxic and mitogenic properties yet their relationship with endometrial and ovarian cancer risk remains unclear. Within the Breast and Bone Follow-up to the Fracture Intervention Trial (B ∼ FIT, n = 15,595), we conducted a case-cohort study to evaluate 15 pre-diagnostic serum estrogens and estrogen metabolites with risk of incident endometrial and ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women not on hormone therapy. Participants included 66 endometrial and 67 ovarian cancer cases diagnosed during follow-up (∼ 10 years) and subcohorts of 346 and 416 women, respectively, after relevant exclusions. Serum concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Exposures were categorized in tertiles (T) and analyzed individually, as metabolic pathways (C-2, -4, or -16) and as ratios to parent estrogens (estradiol, estrone). Estradiol was significantly associated with increased endometrial cancer risk (BMI-adjusted HRT3vsT1 = 4.09, 95% CI 1.70, 9.85; p trend = 0.003). 2-Hydroxyestrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone were not associated with endometrial risk after estradiol adjustment (2-OHE1:HRT3vsT1 = 1.97, 95% CI 0.78, 4.94; 16-OHE1:HRT3vsT1 = 1.50, 95% CI 0.65, 3.46; p trend = 0.16 and 0.36, respectively). Ratios of 2- and 4-pathway catechol-to-methylated estrogens remained positively associated with endometrial cancer after BMI or estradiol adjustment (2-pathway catechols-to-methylated: HRT3vsT1 = 4.02, 95% CI 1.60, 10.1; 4-pathway catechols-to-methylated: HRT3vsT1 = 4.59, 95% CI 1.64, 12.9; p trend = 0.002 for both). Estrogens and estrogen metabolites were not associated with ovarian cancer risk; however, larger studies are needed to better evaluate these relationships. Estrogen metabolism may be important in endometrial carcinogenesis, particularly with less extensive methylation of 2- or 4-pathway catechols associated with elevated endometrial cancer risk. SN - 1868-8500 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26728471/Estrogen_Metabolism_and_Risk_of_Postmenopausal_Endometrial_and_Ovarian_Cancer:_the_B_∼_FIT_Cohort_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12672-015-0237-y DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -