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Cancer of the breast and reproductive tract in relation to use of oral contraceptives.
Contraception. 1989 Jul; 40(1):1-38.C

Abstract

Effects of oral contraception on cancers of the female breast and reproductive tract are critically reviewed from human studies reported since 1980. The cumulative risk of breast cancer through 59 years of age appears to bear no relationship to oral contraceptive (OC) use whatsoever. Studies restricted to women under age 45, however, raise concern about a possible adverse effect from OC use before a first-term pregnancy. A duration-related protective effect against endometrial cancer occurs from use of combined OCs. The risk is reduced by about 40% with 2 years of use, and by about 60% with 4 or more years of oral contraception. Oral contraception in excess of 3 years protects against ovarian cancer. Four years of use confers a 50% reduction in risk and 7 or more years of use confers a 60%-80% reduction in ovarian cancer risk. Studies of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma in situ suggest elevated risks with 2 or more years of OC use, although results are difficult to interpret in view of numerous factors that might distort the findings. The risk of invasive cervical cancer appear to be unaffected by up to 5 years of oral contraception. Beyond this, there is evidence suggesting an elevated risk which approaches a 2-fold increase at 10 years of use. Cancers of the vagina and fallopian tube are extremely rare. Their risks have yet to be characterized in relation to oral contraception.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

2673658

Citation

Schlesselman, J J.. "Cancer of the Breast and Reproductive Tract in Relation to Use of Oral Contraceptives." Contraception, vol. 40, no. 1, 1989, pp. 1-38.
Schlesselman JJ. Cancer of the breast and reproductive tract in relation to use of oral contraceptives. Contraception. 1989;40(1):1-38.
Schlesselman, J. J. (1989). Cancer of the breast and reproductive tract in relation to use of oral contraceptives. Contraception, 40(1), 1-38.
Schlesselman JJ. Cancer of the Breast and Reproductive Tract in Relation to Use of Oral Contraceptives. Contraception. 1989;40(1):1-38. PubMed PMID: 2673658.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cancer of the breast and reproductive tract in relation to use of oral contraceptives. A1 - Schlesselman,J J, PY - 1989/7/1/pubmed PY - 1989/7/1/medline PY - 1989/7/1/entrez KW - Age Distribution KW - Age Factors KW - Biology KW - Body Weight KW - Breast Cancer KW - Cancer KW - Cervical Cancer KW - Cervical Effects KW - Cervix KW - Contraception KW - Contraception Continuation KW - Contraceptive Methods--beneficial effects KW - Contraceptive Methods--side effects KW - Contraceptive Usage KW - Demographic Factors KW - Diseases KW - Endocrine System KW - Endometrial Cancer KW - Estrogens--side effects KW - Family Planning KW - Fertility KW - Fertility Measurements KW - Genitalia KW - Genitalia, Female KW - Hormones KW - Incidence KW - Literature Review KW - Measurement KW - Neoplasms KW - Obesity KW - Oral Contraceptives--beneficial effects KW - Oral Contraceptives--side effects KW - Ovarian Cancer KW - Parity KW - Physiology KW - Population KW - Population Characteristics KW - Population Dynamics KW - Research Methodology KW - Risk Factors KW - Urogenital System KW - Uterus SP - 1 EP - 38 JF - Contraception JO - Contraception VL - 40 IS - 1 N2 - Effects of oral contraception on cancers of the female breast and reproductive tract are critically reviewed from human studies reported since 1980. The cumulative risk of breast cancer through 59 years of age appears to bear no relationship to oral contraceptive (OC) use whatsoever. Studies restricted to women under age 45, however, raise concern about a possible adverse effect from OC use before a first-term pregnancy. A duration-related protective effect against endometrial cancer occurs from use of combined OCs. The risk is reduced by about 40% with 2 years of use, and by about 60% with 4 or more years of oral contraception. Oral contraception in excess of 3 years protects against ovarian cancer. Four years of use confers a 50% reduction in risk and 7 or more years of use confers a 60%-80% reduction in ovarian cancer risk. Studies of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma in situ suggest elevated risks with 2 or more years of OC use, although results are difficult to interpret in view of numerous factors that might distort the findings. The risk of invasive cervical cancer appear to be unaffected by up to 5 years of oral contraception. Beyond this, there is evidence suggesting an elevated risk which approaches a 2-fold increase at 10 years of use. Cancers of the vagina and fallopian tube are extremely rare. Their risks have yet to be characterized in relation to oral contraception. SN - 0010-7824 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/2673658/Cancer_of_the_breast_and_reproductive_tract_in_relation_to_use_of_oral_contraceptives_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0010-7824(89)90025-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -