Oxidative Dimerization of PHD2 is Responsible for its Inactivation and Contributes to Metabolic Reprogramming via HIF-1α Activation.Sci Rep 2016; 6:18928SR
Prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) belongs to an evolutionarily conserved superfamily of 2-oxoglutarate and Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases that mediates homeostatic responses to oxygen deprivation by mediating hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) hydroxylation and degradation. Although oxidative stress contributes to the inactivation of PHD2, the precise molecular mechanism of PHD2 inactivation independent of the levels of co-factors is not understood. Here, we identified disulfide bond-mediated PHD2 homo-dimer formation in response to oxidative stress caused by oxidizing agents and oncogenic H-ras(V12) signalling. Cysteine residues in the double-stranded β-helix fold that constitutes the catalytic site of PHD isoforms appeared responsible for the oxidative dimerization. Furthermore, we demonstrated that disulfide bond-mediated PHD2 dimerization is associated with the stabilization and activation of HIF-1α under oxidative stress. Oncogenic H-ras(V12) signalling facilitates the accumulation of HIF-1α in the nucleus and promotes aerobic glycolysis and lactate production. Moreover, oncogenic H-ras(V12) does not trigger aerobic glycolysis in antioxidant-treated or PHD2 knocked-down cells, suggesting the participation of the ROS-mediated PHD2 inactivation in the oncogenic H-ras(V12)-mediated metabolic reprogramming. We provide here a better understanding of the mechanism by which disulfide bond-mediated PHD2 dimerization and inactivation result in the activation of HIF-1α and aerobic glycolysis in response to oxidative stress.