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Sarcopenia and cachexia in the era of obesity: clinical and nutritional impact.
Proc Nutr Soc. 2016 May; 75(2):188-98.PN

Abstract

Our understanding of body composition (BC) variability in contemporary populations has significantly increased with the use of imaging techniques. Abnormal BC such as sarcopenia (low muscle mass) and obesity (excess adipose tissue) are predictors of poorer prognosis in a variety of conditions or clinical situations. As a catabolic illness, a defining feature of cancer is muscle loss. Although the conceptual model of wasting in cancer is typically conceived as involuntary weight loss leading to low body weight, recent studies have shown that both sarcopenia and cachexia can be present with obesity. The combination of low muscle and high adipose tissue (sarcopenic obesity) is an emerging abnormal BC phenotype prevalent across the body weight, and hence BMI spectra. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in cancer are in most instances occult conditions, which have been independently associated with higher incidence of chemotherapy toxicity, shorter time to tumour progression, poorer outcomes of surgery, physical impairment and shorter survival. Although the mechanisms are yet to be fully understood, the associations with poorer clinical outcomes emphasise the value of nutritional assessment as well as the need to develop appropriate interventions to countermeasure abnormal BC. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity create diverse nutritional requirements, highlighting the compelling need for a more comprehensive and differentiated understanding of energy and protein requirements in this heterogeneous population.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science,University of Alberta,Edmonton,Alberta,Canada.School of Food and Nutritional Sciences,University College Cork,Cork,Republic of Ireland.Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science,University of Alberta,Edmonton,Alberta,Canada.School of Food and Nutritional Sciences,University College Cork,Cork,Republic of Ireland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26743210

Citation

Prado, C M., et al. "Sarcopenia and Cachexia in the Era of Obesity: Clinical and Nutritional Impact." The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 75, no. 2, 2016, pp. 188-98.
Prado CM, Cushen SJ, Orsso CE, et al. Sarcopenia and cachexia in the era of obesity: clinical and nutritional impact. Proc Nutr Soc. 2016;75(2):188-98.
Prado, C. M., Cushen, S. J., Orsso, C. E., & Ryan, A. M. (2016). Sarcopenia and cachexia in the era of obesity: clinical and nutritional impact. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 75(2), 188-98. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665115004279
Prado CM, et al. Sarcopenia and Cachexia in the Era of Obesity: Clinical and Nutritional Impact. Proc Nutr Soc. 2016;75(2):188-98. PubMed PMID: 26743210.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sarcopenia and cachexia in the era of obesity: clinical and nutritional impact. AU - Prado,C M, AU - Cushen,S J, AU - Orsso,C E, AU - Ryan,A M, Y1 - 2016/01/08/ PY - 2016/1/9/entrez PY - 2016/1/9/pubmed PY - 2017/1/4/medline KW - BC body composition KW - Body composition KW - CT computerised tomography KW - Cancer KW - DLT dose limiting toxicity KW - HR hazard ratio KW - Lean body mass KW - Lean soft tissue KW - Muscle KW - Nutritional assessment KW - Nutritional status KW - Obesity KW - Sarcopenia KW - Sarcopenic obesity SP - 188 EP - 98 JF - The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society JO - Proc Nutr Soc VL - 75 IS - 2 N2 - Our understanding of body composition (BC) variability in contemporary populations has significantly increased with the use of imaging techniques. Abnormal BC such as sarcopenia (low muscle mass) and obesity (excess adipose tissue) are predictors of poorer prognosis in a variety of conditions or clinical situations. As a catabolic illness, a defining feature of cancer is muscle loss. Although the conceptual model of wasting in cancer is typically conceived as involuntary weight loss leading to low body weight, recent studies have shown that both sarcopenia and cachexia can be present with obesity. The combination of low muscle and high adipose tissue (sarcopenic obesity) is an emerging abnormal BC phenotype prevalent across the body weight, and hence BMI spectra. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in cancer are in most instances occult conditions, which have been independently associated with higher incidence of chemotherapy toxicity, shorter time to tumour progression, poorer outcomes of surgery, physical impairment and shorter survival. Although the mechanisms are yet to be fully understood, the associations with poorer clinical outcomes emphasise the value of nutritional assessment as well as the need to develop appropriate interventions to countermeasure abnormal BC. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity create diverse nutritional requirements, highlighting the compelling need for a more comprehensive and differentiated understanding of energy and protein requirements in this heterogeneous population. SN - 1475-2719 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26743210/Sarcopenia_and_cachexia_in_the_era_of_obesity:_clinical_and_nutritional_impact_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0029665115004279/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -