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Effects of dietary saturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the incorporation of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into blood lipids.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) are better absorbed when they are combined with high-fat meals. However, the role of different dietary fats in modulating the incorporation of n-3PUFA in blood lipids in humans has not been previously explored. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA) are known to compete with n-3PUFA in the metabolic pathways and for the incorporation into phospholipids, whereas saturated fats (SFA) may enhance n-3PUFA incorporation into tissues.

SUBJECTS/METHODS

In a randomized parallel-design trial, we aimed to investigate the long-term effects of n-3PUFA supplementation in subjects consuming a diet enriched with either SFA or n-6PUFA on fatty acid incorporation into plasma and erythrocytes and on blood lipid profiles (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides).

RESULTS

Dietary supplementation with n-3PUFA co-administered with SFA for 6 weeks resulted in a significant rise in total cholesterol (0.46±0.60 mmol/L; P=0.020) and LDL-C (0.48±0.48 mmol/L; P=0.011) in comparison with combination with n-6PUFA. The diet enriched with SFA also induced a greater increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (2.07±0.79 vs 1.15±0.53; P=0.004), a smaller decrease in docosapentaenoic acid (-0.12±0.23 vs -0.30±0.20; P=0.034) and a similar increase in docosahexaenoic acid (3.85±1.14 vs 3.10±1.07; P=0.128) percentage in plasma compared with the diet enriched with n-6PUFA. A similar effect was seen in erythrocytes. N-3PUFA supplementation resulted in similar changes in HDL-C and triglyceride levels.

CONCLUSIONS

The results suggest that dietary substitution of SFA with n-6PUFA, despite maintaining low levels of circulating cholesterol, hinders n-3PUFA incorporation into plasma and tissue lipids.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Nutraceuticals Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

    ,

    Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

    Nutraceuticals Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Cholesterol
    Cholesterol, HDL
    Cholesterol, LDL
    Diet
    Dietary Fats
    Eicosapentaenoic Acid
    Erythrocytes
    Fatty Acids
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Fatty Acids, Omega-6
    Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Humans
    Lipids
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Phospholipids
    Triglycerides
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26757835

    Citation

    Dias, C B., et al. "Effects of Dietary Saturated and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids On the Incorporation of Long-chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Into Blood Lipids." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 70, no. 7, 2016, pp. 812-8.
    Dias CB, Wood LG, Garg ML. Effects of dietary saturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the incorporation of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into blood lipids. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(7):812-8.
    Dias, C. B., Wood, L. G., & Garg, M. L. (2016). Effects of dietary saturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the incorporation of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into blood lipids. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(7), pp. 812-8. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.213.
    Dias CB, Wood LG, Garg ML. Effects of Dietary Saturated and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids On the Incorporation of Long-chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Into Blood Lipids. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(7):812-8. PubMed PMID: 26757835.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of dietary saturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the incorporation of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into blood lipids. AU - Dias,C B, AU - Wood,L G, AU - Garg,M L, Y1 - 2016/01/13/ PY - 2015/07/21/received PY - 2015/09/07/revised PY - 2015/09/26/accepted PY - 2016/1/14/entrez PY - 2016/1/14/pubmed PY - 2018/1/27/medline SP - 812 EP - 8 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 70 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) are better absorbed when they are combined with high-fat meals. However, the role of different dietary fats in modulating the incorporation of n-3PUFA in blood lipids in humans has not been previously explored. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA) are known to compete with n-3PUFA in the metabolic pathways and for the incorporation into phospholipids, whereas saturated fats (SFA) may enhance n-3PUFA incorporation into tissues. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a randomized parallel-design trial, we aimed to investigate the long-term effects of n-3PUFA supplementation in subjects consuming a diet enriched with either SFA or n-6PUFA on fatty acid incorporation into plasma and erythrocytes and on blood lipid profiles (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides). RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with n-3PUFA co-administered with SFA for 6 weeks resulted in a significant rise in total cholesterol (0.46±0.60 mmol/L; P=0.020) and LDL-C (0.48±0.48 mmol/L; P=0.011) in comparison with combination with n-6PUFA. The diet enriched with SFA also induced a greater increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (2.07±0.79 vs 1.15±0.53; P=0.004), a smaller decrease in docosapentaenoic acid (-0.12±0.23 vs -0.30±0.20; P=0.034) and a similar increase in docosahexaenoic acid (3.85±1.14 vs 3.10±1.07; P=0.128) percentage in plasma compared with the diet enriched with n-6PUFA. A similar effect was seen in erythrocytes. N-3PUFA supplementation resulted in similar changes in HDL-C and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that dietary substitution of SFA with n-6PUFA, despite maintaining low levels of circulating cholesterol, hinders n-3PUFA incorporation into plasma and tissue lipids. SN - 1476-5640 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26757835/full_citation L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2015.213 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -