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Long-term risk of type 2 diabetes in relation to habitual iron intake in women with a history of gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study.
Am J Clin Nutr 2016; 103(2):375-81AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

An iron overload may induce pancreatic islet damage and increase risk of diabetes. Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after pregnancy.

OBJECTIVE

We aimed to examine the association of habitual iron intake with long-term risk of T2DM in this high-risk population.

DESIGN

We included 3976 women with a history of GDM from the Nurses' Health Study II cohort as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women's Health Study. The women were followed up through 2009. Iron intake was assessed with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire in 1991 and every 4 y thereafter. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs.

RESULTS

We documented 641 incident T2DM cases during 57,683 person-years of observation. Adjusted HRs for T2DM for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.25; P-trend = 0.02) for total iron intake and 1.80 (95% CI: 1.18, 2.74; P-trend = 0.005) for dietary heme iron intake. In addition, women who consumed ≥30.0 mg supplemental Fe/d, compared with nonusers, had an adjusted HR of 1.83 (95% CI: 1.25, 2.70; P-trend = 0.002).

CONCLUSION

In women with a history of GDM, greater intakes of total iron, dietary heme iron, and supplemental iron were associated with higher risk of T2DM.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Rockville, MD;Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, and.Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and.Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Rockville, MD;Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, and.Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Rockville, MD; zhangcu@mail.nih.gov.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26762369

Citation

Bao, Wei, et al. "Long-term Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Relation to Habitual Iron Intake in Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes: a Prospective Cohort Study." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 103, no. 2, 2016, pp. 375-81.
Bao W, Chavarro JE, Tobias DK, et al. Long-term risk of type 2 diabetes in relation to habitual iron intake in women with a history of gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(2):375-81.
Bao, W., Chavarro, J. E., Tobias, D. K., Bowers, K., Li, S., Hu, F. B., & Zhang, C. (2016). Long-term risk of type 2 diabetes in relation to habitual iron intake in women with a history of gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(2), pp. 375-81. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.108712.
Bao W, et al. Long-term Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Relation to Habitual Iron Intake in Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes: a Prospective Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(2):375-81. PubMed PMID: 26762369.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Long-term risk of type 2 diabetes in relation to habitual iron intake in women with a history of gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study. AU - Bao,Wei, AU - Chavarro,Jorge E, AU - Tobias,Deirdre K, AU - Bowers,Katherine, AU - Li,Shanshan, AU - Hu,Frank B, AU - Zhang,Cuilin, Y1 - 2016/01/13/ PY - 2015/02/04/received PY - 2015/11/10/accepted PY - 2016/1/15/entrez PY - 2016/1/15/pubmed PY - 2016/6/14/medline KW - diet KW - gestational diabetes mellitus KW - heme iron KW - iron KW - type 2 diabetes mellitus SP - 375 EP - 81 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 103 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: An iron overload may induce pancreatic islet damage and increase risk of diabetes. Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association of habitual iron intake with long-term risk of T2DM in this high-risk population. DESIGN: We included 3976 women with a history of GDM from the Nurses' Health Study II cohort as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women's Health Study. The women were followed up through 2009. Iron intake was assessed with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire in 1991 and every 4 y thereafter. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: We documented 641 incident T2DM cases during 57,683 person-years of observation. Adjusted HRs for T2DM for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.25; P-trend = 0.02) for total iron intake and 1.80 (95% CI: 1.18, 2.74; P-trend = 0.005) for dietary heme iron intake. In addition, women who consumed ≥30.0 mg supplemental Fe/d, compared with nonusers, had an adjusted HR of 1.83 (95% CI: 1.25, 2.70; P-trend = 0.002). CONCLUSION: In women with a history of GDM, greater intakes of total iron, dietary heme iron, and supplemental iron were associated with higher risk of T2DM. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26762369/Long_term_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_relation_to_habitual_iron_intake_in_women_with_a_history_of_gestational_diabetes:_a_prospective_cohort_study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.115.108712 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -