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Enhancing Quit & Win contests to improve cessation among college smokers: a randomized clinical trial.
Addiction. 2016 Feb; 111(2):331-9.A

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

Quit & Win contests (in which smokers pledge to quit smoking for a defined period in exchange for the chance to win a prize) may be well-suited for college smokers. We tested the effectiveness of multiple versus single Quit & Win contests and that of added counseling versus no counseling in smoking cessation.

DESIGN

A two-by-two, randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up.

SETTING

Nineteen institutions in Minnesota, Texas, Ohio and Wisconsin.

PARTICIPANTS

College student smokers (n = 1217) were randomized within site to four conditions: single (n = 306), multiple contests alone (n = 309), single contest plus counseling (n = 296) or multiple contests with counseling (n = 306).

INTERVENTION

Participants in the standard contest condition (T1 and T2) were asked to abstain from all tobacco products for a 30-day period; those with confirmed abstinence were eligible for a lottery-based prize. Participants assigned to the multiple contest conditions (T3 and T4) participated in the 30-day contest and were enrolled automatically into two additional contest periods with an escalating prize structure. Participants randomized into the counseling conditions (T2 and T4) received up to six telephone-administered Motivation and Problem Solving (MAPS) counseling sessions over the 12-week treatment period.

MEASURES

The primary outcome was biochemically verified 30-day point prevalence (PP) abstinence rate at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were the same abstinence at end of treatment (4 months) and a proxy measure of 6-month verified continuous abstinence rate. Outcomes were based on all participants randomized.

FINDINGS

We found no evidence of an interaction between number of contests and counseling. Abstinence rates for multiple (13.5%) and single (11.7%) contests were not significantly different at 6 months [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84-1.66]. The addition of counseling did not improve 6-month abstinence significantly (13.7 versus 11.6%, OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.86-1.70). Multiple contests increased abstinence at 4 months (19.3 versus 10.3%, OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.50-2.91) and continuous abstinence at 6 months (7.8 versus 3.8%, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.28-3.56).

CONCLUSION

Multiple Quit & Win contests may increase smoking abstinence rates in college students more than single contests, but it is not clear whether adding counseling to these interventions produces any additional benefit.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.School of Public Health, Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. University of Minnesota Masonic Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA.Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.Clinical and Translational Science Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.Boynton Health Service, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.Center for Health Communications Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX, USA.Pediatrics; Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.Rutgers School of Public Health, New Jersey, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26767340

Citation

Thomas, Janet L., et al. "Enhancing Quit & Win Contests to Improve Cessation Among College Smokers: a Randomized Clinical Trial." Addiction (Abingdon, England), vol. 111, no. 2, 2016, pp. 331-9.
Thomas JL, Luo X, Bengtson J, et al. Enhancing Quit & Win contests to improve cessation among college smokers: a randomized clinical trial. Addiction. 2016;111(2):331-9.
Thomas, J. L., Luo, X., Bengtson, J., Wang, Q., Ghidei, W., Nyman, J., Lust, K., An, L., Wetter, D. W., Epstein, L., & Ahluwalia, J. S. (2016). Enhancing Quit & Win contests to improve cessation among college smokers: a randomized clinical trial. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 111(2), 331-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13144
Thomas JL, et al. Enhancing Quit & Win Contests to Improve Cessation Among College Smokers: a Randomized Clinical Trial. Addiction. 2016;111(2):331-9. PubMed PMID: 26767340.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Enhancing Quit & Win contests to improve cessation among college smokers: a randomized clinical trial. AU - Thomas,Janet L, AU - Luo,Xianghua, AU - Bengtson,Jill, AU - Wang,Qi, AU - Ghidei,Winta, AU - Nyman,John, AU - Lust,Katherine, AU - An,Lawrence, AU - Wetter,David W, AU - Epstein,Leonard, AU - Ahluwalia,Jasjit S, Y1 - 2015/11/11/ PY - 2015/02/11/received PY - 2015/05/14/revised PY - 2015/08/28/accepted PY - 2016/1/16/entrez PY - 2016/1/16/pubmed PY - 2017/1/18/medline KW - College students KW - financial incentives KW - smoking cessation SP - 331 EP - 9 JF - Addiction (Abingdon, England) JO - Addiction VL - 111 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Quit & Win contests (in which smokers pledge to quit smoking for a defined period in exchange for the chance to win a prize) may be well-suited for college smokers. We tested the effectiveness of multiple versus single Quit & Win contests and that of added counseling versus no counseling in smoking cessation. DESIGN: A two-by-two, randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up. SETTING: Nineteen institutions in Minnesota, Texas, Ohio and Wisconsin. PARTICIPANTS: College student smokers (n = 1217) were randomized within site to four conditions: single (n = 306), multiple contests alone (n = 309), single contest plus counseling (n = 296) or multiple contests with counseling (n = 306). INTERVENTION: Participants in the standard contest condition (T1 and T2) were asked to abstain from all tobacco products for a 30-day period; those with confirmed abstinence were eligible for a lottery-based prize. Participants assigned to the multiple contest conditions (T3 and T4) participated in the 30-day contest and were enrolled automatically into two additional contest periods with an escalating prize structure. Participants randomized into the counseling conditions (T2 and T4) received up to six telephone-administered Motivation and Problem Solving (MAPS) counseling sessions over the 12-week treatment period. MEASURES: The primary outcome was biochemically verified 30-day point prevalence (PP) abstinence rate at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were the same abstinence at end of treatment (4 months) and a proxy measure of 6-month verified continuous abstinence rate. Outcomes were based on all participants randomized. FINDINGS: We found no evidence of an interaction between number of contests and counseling. Abstinence rates for multiple (13.5%) and single (11.7%) contests were not significantly different at 6 months [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84-1.66]. The addition of counseling did not improve 6-month abstinence significantly (13.7 versus 11.6%, OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.86-1.70). Multiple contests increased abstinence at 4 months (19.3 versus 10.3%, OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.50-2.91) and continuous abstinence at 6 months (7.8 versus 3.8%, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.28-3.56). CONCLUSION: Multiple Quit & Win contests may increase smoking abstinence rates in college students more than single contests, but it is not clear whether adding counseling to these interventions produces any additional benefit. SN - 1360-0443 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26767340/Enhancing_Quit_&_Win_contests_to_improve_cessation_among_college_smokers:_a_randomized_clinical_trial_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13144 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -