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What is eaten when all of the foods at a meal are served in large portions?
Appetite 2016; 99:1-9A

Abstract

Portion size affects intake, but when all foods are served in large portions, it is unclear whether every food will be consumed in greater amounts. We varied the portion size (PS) of all foods at a meal to investigate the influence of food energy density (ED) on the PS effect as well as that of palatability and subject characteristics. In a crossover design, 48 women ate lunch in the laboratory on four occasions. The meal had three medium-ED foods (pasta, bread, cake) and three low-ED foods (broccoli, tomatoes, grapes), which were simultaneously varied in PS across meals (100%, 133%, 167%, or 200% of baseline amounts). The results showed that the effect of PS on the weight of food consumed did not differ between medium-ED and low-ED foods (p < 0.0001). Energy intake, however, was substantially affected by food ED across all portions served, with medium-ED foods contributing 86% of energy. Doubling the portions of all foods increased meal energy intake by a mean (±SEM) of 900 ± 117 kJ (215 ± 28 kcal; 34%). As portions were increased, subjects consumed a smaller proportion of the amount served; this response was characterized by a quadratic curve. The strongest predictor of the weight of food consumed was the weight of food served, both for the entire meal (p < 0.0001) and for individual foods (p = 0.014); subject characteristics explained less variability. Intake in response to larger portions was greater for foods that subjects ranked higher in taste (p < 0.0001); rankings were not related to food ED. This study demonstrates the complexity of the PS effect. While the response to PS can vary between individuals, the effect depends primarily on the amounts of foods offered and their palatability compared to other available foods.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory for the Study of Human Ingestive Behavior, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Laboratory for the Study of Human Ingestive Behavior, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Laboratory for the Study of Human Ingestive Behavior, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. Electronic address: bjr4@psu.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26767612

Citation

Roe, Liane S., et al. "What Is Eaten when All of the Foods at a Meal Are Served in Large Portions?" Appetite, vol. 99, 2016, pp. 1-9.
Roe LS, Kling SMR, Rolls BJ. What is eaten when all of the foods at a meal are served in large portions? Appetite. 2016;99:1-9.
Roe, L. S., Kling, S. M. R., & Rolls, B. J. (2016). What is eaten when all of the foods at a meal are served in large portions? Appetite, 99, pp. 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2016.01.001.
Roe LS, Kling SMR, Rolls BJ. What Is Eaten when All of the Foods at a Meal Are Served in Large Portions. Appetite. 2016 Apr 1;99:1-9. PubMed PMID: 26767612.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - What is eaten when all of the foods at a meal are served in large portions? AU - Roe,Liane S, AU - Kling,Samantha M R, AU - Rolls,Barbara J, Y1 - 2016/01/05/ PY - 2015/07/17/received PY - 2015/11/20/revised PY - 2016/01/02/accepted PY - 2016/1/16/entrez PY - 2016/1/16/pubmed PY - 2016/12/15/medline KW - Disinhibition KW - Energy density KW - Energy intake KW - Food intake KW - Palatability KW - Portion size SP - 1 EP - 9 JF - Appetite JO - Appetite VL - 99 N2 - Portion size affects intake, but when all foods are served in large portions, it is unclear whether every food will be consumed in greater amounts. We varied the portion size (PS) of all foods at a meal to investigate the influence of food energy density (ED) on the PS effect as well as that of palatability and subject characteristics. In a crossover design, 48 women ate lunch in the laboratory on four occasions. The meal had three medium-ED foods (pasta, bread, cake) and three low-ED foods (broccoli, tomatoes, grapes), which were simultaneously varied in PS across meals (100%, 133%, 167%, or 200% of baseline amounts). The results showed that the effect of PS on the weight of food consumed did not differ between medium-ED and low-ED foods (p < 0.0001). Energy intake, however, was substantially affected by food ED across all portions served, with medium-ED foods contributing 86% of energy. Doubling the portions of all foods increased meal energy intake by a mean (±SEM) of 900 ± 117 kJ (215 ± 28 kcal; 34%). As portions were increased, subjects consumed a smaller proportion of the amount served; this response was characterized by a quadratic curve. The strongest predictor of the weight of food consumed was the weight of food served, both for the entire meal (p < 0.0001) and for individual foods (p = 0.014); subject characteristics explained less variability. Intake in response to larger portions was greater for foods that subjects ranked higher in taste (p < 0.0001); rankings were not related to food ED. This study demonstrates the complexity of the PS effect. While the response to PS can vary between individuals, the effect depends primarily on the amounts of foods offered and their palatability compared to other available foods. SN - 1095-8304 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26767612/What_is_eaten_when_all_of_the_foods_at_a_meal_are_served_in_large_portions L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195-6663(16)30001-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -