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Identifying a physical indicator of suicide risk: Non-suicidal self-injury scars predict suicidal ideation and suicide attempts.
Compr Psychiatry. 2016 Feb; 65:79-87.CP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Suicide risk is challenging to quantify due to reliance on self-report, which is limited by individuals' lack of insight and the desire to conceal such intentions. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is one of the most robust predictors of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA). Although NSSI often leads to permanent scarring, which can be assessed by objective physical examination, no research has examined whether scarring denotes tangible risk for SI and SA. The present study examined whether NSSI scar presence and number predict current SI and SA history. Further, we examined whether brooding would exacerbate the effects of NSSI scarring on SI or SA.

METHODS

Young adults (N=231; M=21.24 years; 78% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing SA history, frequency of NSSI, presence/number of NSSI scars, brooding, current depressive symptoms, and SI.

RESULTS

NSSI scar presence and number predicted current SI and SA history after controlling for current depressive symptoms. Moreover, scar presence and number predicted current SI over and above the effects of SA history and NSSI frequency, method, and medical severity. Further, NSSI scar presence and number predicted SI more strongly among individuals with greater levels of brooding than among individuals with lower levels of brooding.

CONCLUSIONS

The presence and number of NSSI scars are objective physical indicators of risk for SI and SAs. Brooding may further heighten the risk of SI for individuals bearing NSSI scars.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Temple University, Department of Psychology, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA. Electronic address: taylor.burke@temple.edu.Temple University, Department of Psychology, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA.Temple University, Department of Psychology, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA.Temple University, Department of Psychology, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA.Temple University, Department of Psychology, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26773994

Citation

Burke, Taylor A., et al. "Identifying a Physical Indicator of Suicide Risk: Non-suicidal Self-injury Scars Predict Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts." Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 65, 2016, pp. 79-87.
Burke TA, Hamilton JL, Cohen JN, et al. Identifying a physical indicator of suicide risk: Non-suicidal self-injury scars predict suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Compr Psychiatry. 2016;65:79-87.
Burke, T. A., Hamilton, J. L., Cohen, J. N., Stange, J. P., & Alloy, L. B. (2016). Identifying a physical indicator of suicide risk: Non-suicidal self-injury scars predict suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 65, 79-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2015.10.008
Burke TA, et al. Identifying a Physical Indicator of Suicide Risk: Non-suicidal Self-injury Scars Predict Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts. Compr Psychiatry. 2016;65:79-87. PubMed PMID: 26773994.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Identifying a physical indicator of suicide risk: Non-suicidal self-injury scars predict suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. AU - Burke,Taylor A, AU - Hamilton,Jessica L, AU - Cohen,Jonah N, AU - Stange,Jonathan P, AU - Alloy,Lauren B, Y1 - 2015/11/06/ PY - 2015/08/08/received PY - 2015/10/26/revised PY - 2015/10/28/accepted PY - 2016/1/17/entrez PY - 2016/1/17/pubmed PY - 2016/8/23/medline SP - 79 EP - 87 JF - Comprehensive psychiatry JO - Compr Psychiatry VL - 65 N2 - BACKGROUND: Suicide risk is challenging to quantify due to reliance on self-report, which is limited by individuals' lack of insight and the desire to conceal such intentions. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is one of the most robust predictors of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA). Although NSSI often leads to permanent scarring, which can be assessed by objective physical examination, no research has examined whether scarring denotes tangible risk for SI and SA. The present study examined whether NSSI scar presence and number predict current SI and SA history. Further, we examined whether brooding would exacerbate the effects of NSSI scarring on SI or SA. METHODS: Young adults (N=231; M=21.24 years; 78% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing SA history, frequency of NSSI, presence/number of NSSI scars, brooding, current depressive symptoms, and SI. RESULTS: NSSI scar presence and number predicted current SI and SA history after controlling for current depressive symptoms. Moreover, scar presence and number predicted current SI over and above the effects of SA history and NSSI frequency, method, and medical severity. Further, NSSI scar presence and number predicted SI more strongly among individuals with greater levels of brooding than among individuals with lower levels of brooding. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and number of NSSI scars are objective physical indicators of risk for SI and SAs. Brooding may further heighten the risk of SI for individuals bearing NSSI scars. SN - 1532-8384 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26773994/Identifying_a_physical_indicator_of_suicide_risk:_Non_suicidal_self_injury_scars_predict_suicidal_ideation_and_suicide_attempts_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0010-440X(15)30153-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -