A Prospective Cohort Study to Examine the Association Between Dietary Patterns and Sarcopenia in Chinese Community-Dwelling Older People in Hong Kong.J Am Med Dir Assoc 2016; 17(4):336-42JA
Dietary pattern analysis has recently emerged as an alternative approach to investigate the association between diet and sarcopenia. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with sarcopenia in Chinese community-dwelling older people.
Chinese men and women aged 65 years or older participating in a cohort study examining the risk factors for osteoporosis completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline between 2001 and 2003. Adherence to a priori dietary patterns, namely the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was assessed. Factor analysis identified 3 a posterior dietary patterns: "vegetables-fruits," "snacks-drinks-milk products," and "meat-fish." Sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia algorithm. Multiple logistic regression was used for cross-sectional analysis (n = 3957) to assess the associations between dietary patterns and prevalent sarcopenia, and for longitudinal analysis (n = 2948) on their associations with 4-year incident sarcopenia with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.
There were 290 (7.3%) (185 men, 105 women) sarcopenic cases at baseline and 264 (9.0%) (160 men, 104 women) incident sarcopenic cases at the 4-year follow-up. At baseline, men in the highest quartile of DQI-I had reduced odds of sarcopenia (Adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.81, Ptrend = .004) compared with men in the lowest quartile. Men in the highest quartile of "vegetables-fruits" pattern score (Adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.36-0.99, Ptrend = .034) showed lower likelihood of sarcopenia compared with men in the lowest quartile. Higher quartile of "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern score was associated with lower odds of sarcopenia in men (Adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.70, Ptrend < .001). There was no association between dietary patterns and prevalent sarcopenia in women. None of the dietary patterns was associated with incident sarcopenia at 4-year in both sexes.
Higher DQI-I, higher "vegetables-fruits" dietary pattern score, and higher "snacks-drinks-milk products" dietary pattern score were associated with lower odds of prevalent sarcopenia in Chinese older men.