Association between rostral prefrontal cortical activity and functional outcome in first-episode psychosis: a longitudinal functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.Schizophr Res 2016; 170(2-3):304-10SR
Few biomarkers can be used easily and noninvasively to measure clinical condition and future outcome in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). To develop such biomarker using multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), cortical function in the prefrontal cortex was longitudinally measured during a verbal fluency task.
Sixty-nine fNIRS measurements and 77 clinical assessments were obtained from 31 patients with FEP at baseline, 6-month, and 12-month follow-ups. Sixty measurements were obtained from 30 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and premorbid IQ. We initially tested signal changes for 12 months, and then investigated the relationship between fNIRS signals and clinical assessments.
Signal changes from baseline to 12-month follow-up were not evident in any group. Patients with FEP had significant positive correlation coefficients between 6-month fNIRS signals and the 12-month Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score in the left middle frontal gyrus (FDR-corrected p=.0016-.0052, r=.65-.59). fNIRS signals at the 12-month follow-up were associated with 12-month GAF score in the bilateral superior and middle frontal gyri (FDR-corrected p=.00085-.018, r=.72-.55), and with the difference between baseline and 12-month GAF scores in the right superior frontal gyrus (FDR-corrected p=.000067-.00012, r=.80-.78). These associations were significant even after controlling for demographic variables. No association between baseline fNIRS signals and later GAF scores was found.
fNIRS measurement can potentially be used as a biomarker to aid sequential assessment of neuro-clinical conditions through the early stage of psychosis.