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Tongxinluo reduces brain edema and inhibits post-ischemic inflammation after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Apr 02; 181:136-45.JE

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE

Tongxinluo (TXL), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved multiple therapeutic effects in cerebral ischemic infraction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of TXL on the brain edema and post-ischemic inflammatory response.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat was used as the ischemia model. Rats were treated with TXL. In the first stage, the best dosage was chosen based on functional assessment and infarct size. In the second stage, rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham control (sham), ischemia and reperfusion (IR) 24h, TXL24h, I/R72h, TXL72h. TXL(1.6g/kg/day) administration was pre-performed for 3 days in TXL groups, and was post-performed for 24h (TXL24h group) or 72h (TXL72h group). Brain edema was measured by water content, MRI and AQP4 expression. Iba1, HMGB1, TLR4, NF-κB expression were examined by immunofluorescence staining or Western blot. TNF-α was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

RESULTS

High dose (1.6g/kg/day) of TXL remarkably reduced neurological deficit scores and cerebral infarct area. Compared with those results of I/R24h group, pre-post treatment with TXL for 3 days decreased brain water content, down-regulated AQP4 expression, lowered relative signal intensity of T2WI, reduced lesion volume ratio, and inhibited the activation of microglia, HMGB1, TLR4, NF-κB and TNF-α.

CONCLUSIONS

These results indicated that the TXL pre-post treatment for 3 days could be an effective therapy for brain ischemia by inhibiting the development of brain edema and post-ischemic inflammation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Integrative Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, and Laboratory of Neurology, Institute of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address: naphel1986@hotmail.com.Department of Integrative Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, and Laboratory of Neurology, Institute of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address: yuzhonghai0715@126.com.Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Xiehe Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fujian 350001, China. Electronic address: 751501231@qq.com.Department of Integrative Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, and Laboratory of Neurology, Institute of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address: songxl2016@163.com.Department of Integrative Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, and Laboratory of Neurology, Institute of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address: jingsiz@163.com.Department of Integrative Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, and Laboratory of Neurology, Institute of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address: zhennian2000@163.com.Department of Integrative Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, and Laboratory of Neurology, Institute of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address: zw8536899@163.com.Department of Integrative Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, and Laboratory of Neurology, Institute of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address: wenweili2000@aliyun.com.Department of Integrative Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, and Laboratory of Neurology, Institute of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address: chelsea_jx@hotmail.com.Department of Integrative Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, and Laboratory of Neurology, Institute of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address: dingfangcai@163.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26805468

Citation

Cai, Min, et al. "Tongxinluo Reduces Brain Edema and Inhibits Post-ischemic Inflammation After Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 181, 2016, pp. 136-45.
Cai M, Yu Z, Wang L, et al. Tongxinluo reduces brain edema and inhibits post-ischemic inflammation after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;181:136-45.
Cai, M., Yu, Z., Wang, L., Song, X., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Zhang, W., Li, W., Xiang, J., & Cai, D. (2016). Tongxinluo reduces brain edema and inhibits post-ischemic inflammation after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 181, 136-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.01.026
Cai M, et al. Tongxinluo Reduces Brain Edema and Inhibits Post-ischemic Inflammation After Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Apr 2;181:136-45. PubMed PMID: 26805468.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tongxinluo reduces brain edema and inhibits post-ischemic inflammation after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. AU - Cai,Min, AU - Yu,Zhonghai, AU - Wang,Lili, AU - Song,Xiaoling, AU - Zhang,Jingsi, AU - Zhang,Zhennian, AU - Zhang,Wen, AU - Li,Wenwei, AU - Xiang,Jun, AU - Cai,Dingfang, Y1 - 2016/01/21/ PY - 2015/09/16/received PY - 2015/12/31/revised PY - 2016/01/18/accepted PY - 2016/1/26/entrez PY - 2016/1/26/pubmed PY - 2016/12/15/medline KW - Brain edema KW - Buthotoxin (PubChem CID: 20054854) KW - Chitin(PubChem CID: 6857375) KW - Ginsenoside Rg1 (PubChem CID: 441923) KW - HMGB1 KW - Hirudin (PubChem CID: 72941487) KW - Inflammation KW - Isoflavone (PubChem CID: 72304) KW - Jujuboside A (PubChem CID: 171446) KW - MRI KW - Paeoniflorin (PubChem CID: 442534) KW - Santalol, alpha- and beta- (PubChem CID: 24832101) KW - Tongxinluo KW - beta-Boswellic acid (PubChem CID: 168928) SP - 136 EP - 45 JF - Journal of ethnopharmacology JO - J Ethnopharmacol VL - 181 N2 - ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongxinluo (TXL), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved multiple therapeutic effects in cerebral ischemic infraction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of TXL on the brain edema and post-ischemic inflammatory response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat was used as the ischemia model. Rats were treated with TXL. In the first stage, the best dosage was chosen based on functional assessment and infarct size. In the second stage, rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham control (sham), ischemia and reperfusion (IR) 24h, TXL24h, I/R72h, TXL72h. TXL(1.6g/kg/day) administration was pre-performed for 3 days in TXL groups, and was post-performed for 24h (TXL24h group) or 72h (TXL72h group). Brain edema was measured by water content, MRI and AQP4 expression. Iba1, HMGB1, TLR4, NF-κB expression were examined by immunofluorescence staining or Western blot. TNF-α was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: High dose (1.6g/kg/day) of TXL remarkably reduced neurological deficit scores and cerebral infarct area. Compared with those results of I/R24h group, pre-post treatment with TXL for 3 days decreased brain water content, down-regulated AQP4 expression, lowered relative signal intensity of T2WI, reduced lesion volume ratio, and inhibited the activation of microglia, HMGB1, TLR4, NF-κB and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that the TXL pre-post treatment for 3 days could be an effective therapy for brain ischemia by inhibiting the development of brain edema and post-ischemic inflammation. SN - 1872-7573 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26805468/Tongxinluo_reduces_brain_edema_and_inhibits_post_ischemic_inflammation_after_middle_cerebral_artery_occlusion_in_rats_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-8741(16)30022-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -