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Hepatoprotective effects of Flagellaria indica are mediated through the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in rats.
Pharm Biol. 2016 Aug; 54(8):1420-33.PB

Abstract

Context The antioxidative properties of plants or plant derivative products are well known for their free radical scavenging effects. Flagellaria indica L. (Flagellariaceae) (FI) is a tropical medicinal plant used by the natives of Sabah as medication for semi-paralysis. Objective This study evaluates the hepatoprotective mechanism of FI against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated liver damage. Materials and methods Aqueous extract of FI leaves was orally administered to adult Sprague-Dawley rats once daily for 14 consecutive days at 300, 400, and 500 mg/kg b.w. prior to CCl4 treatment (1.0 mL/kg b.w.) on the 13th and 14th days. Results Total phenolic content in the aqueous extract of FI leaves was 65.88 ± 1.84 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. IC50 value for free radical scavenging activity of FI aqueous extract was reached at the concentration of 400 μg/mL. Biochemical studies show that the aqueous extract of FI was able to prevent the increase in levels of serum transaminases, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase (38-74% recovery), and malondialdehyde formation (25-87% recovery) in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical results evidenced the suppression of oxidative stress markers (4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) and pro-inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2). Histopathological and hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations proved that there were protective effects in FI against CCl4-mediated liver injury. Signs of toxicity were not present in rats treated with FI alone (500 mg/kg b.w.). Discussion and conclusion It can be concluded that the presence of phenolic constituents and their antioxidative effects can be credited to the hepatoprotective activity of FI.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah , Sabah , Malaysia ;a Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah , Sabah , Malaysia ;b Department of Pathology , Queen Elizabeth Hospital , Sabah , Malaysia.a Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah , Sabah , Malaysia ;

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26810847

Citation

Gnanaraj, Charles, et al. "Hepatoprotective Effects of Flagellaria Indica Are Mediated Through the Suppression of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress Markers in Rats." Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 54, no. 8, 2016, pp. 1420-33.
Gnanaraj C, Shah MD, Makki JS, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of Flagellaria indica are mediated through the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in rats. Pharm Biol. 2016;54(8):1420-33.
Gnanaraj, C., Shah, M. D., Makki, J. S., & Iqbal, M. (2016). Hepatoprotective effects of Flagellaria indica are mediated through the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, 54(8), 1420-33. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2015.1104697
Gnanaraj C, et al. Hepatoprotective Effects of Flagellaria Indica Are Mediated Through the Suppression of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress Markers in Rats. Pharm Biol. 2016;54(8):1420-33. PubMed PMID: 26810847.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hepatoprotective effects of Flagellaria indica are mediated through the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in rats. AU - Gnanaraj,Charles, AU - Shah,Muhammad Dawood, AU - Makki,Jaafar Sadeq, AU - Iqbal,Mohammad, Y1 - 2016/01/25/ PY - 2016/1/27/entrez PY - 2016/1/27/pubmed PY - 2017/2/2/medline KW - Antioxidant enzymes KW - electron microscopy KW - histopathology KW - immuno-histochemistry SP - 1420 EP - 33 JF - Pharmaceutical biology JO - Pharm Biol VL - 54 IS - 8 N2 - Context The antioxidative properties of plants or plant derivative products are well known for their free radical scavenging effects. Flagellaria indica L. (Flagellariaceae) (FI) is a tropical medicinal plant used by the natives of Sabah as medication for semi-paralysis. Objective This study evaluates the hepatoprotective mechanism of FI against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated liver damage. Materials and methods Aqueous extract of FI leaves was orally administered to adult Sprague-Dawley rats once daily for 14 consecutive days at 300, 400, and 500 mg/kg b.w. prior to CCl4 treatment (1.0 mL/kg b.w.) on the 13th and 14th days. Results Total phenolic content in the aqueous extract of FI leaves was 65.88 ± 1.84 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. IC50 value for free radical scavenging activity of FI aqueous extract was reached at the concentration of 400 μg/mL. Biochemical studies show that the aqueous extract of FI was able to prevent the increase in levels of serum transaminases, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase (38-74% recovery), and malondialdehyde formation (25-87% recovery) in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical results evidenced the suppression of oxidative stress markers (4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) and pro-inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2). Histopathological and hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations proved that there were protective effects in FI against CCl4-mediated liver injury. Signs of toxicity were not present in rats treated with FI alone (500 mg/kg b.w.). Discussion and conclusion It can be concluded that the presence of phenolic constituents and their antioxidative effects can be credited to the hepatoprotective activity of FI. SN - 1744-5116 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26810847/Hepatoprotective_effects_of_Flagellaria_indica_are_mediated_through_the_suppression_of_pro_inflammatory_cytokines_and_oxidative_stress_markers_in_rats_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/13880209.2015.1104697 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -