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Fatal presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration.
Toxicon. 2016 Apr; 113:7-10.T

Abstract

A fatal outcome of a presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat is described. Detectable venom components and antivenom concentrations in serum from clotted and centrifuged whole blood and urine were measured using a sensitive and specific ELISA. The cat presented in a paralysed state with a markedly elevated serum CK but with normal clotting times. The cat was treated with intravenous fluids and received two vials of equine whole IgG bivalent (tiger and brown snake) antivenom. Despite treatment the cat's condition did not improve and it died 36 h post-presentation. Serum concentration of detectable tiger snake venom components at initial presentation was 311 ng/mL and urine 832 ng/mL, this declined to non-detectable levels in serum 15-min after intravenous antivenom. Urine concentration of detectable tiger snake venom components declined to 22 ng/mL at post-mortem. Measurement of equine anti-tiger snake venom specific antibody demonstrated a concentration of 7.2 Units/mL in serum at post-mortem which had declined from an initial high of 13 Units/mL at 15-min post-antivenom. The ELISA data demonstrated the complete clearance of detectable venom components from serum with no recurrence in the post-mortem samples. Antivenom concentrations in serum at initial presentation were at least 100-fold higher than theoretically required to neutralise the circulating concentrations of venom. Despite the fatal outcome in this case it was concluded that this was unlikely that is was due to insufficient antivenom.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia. Electronic address: andrew.padula@unimelb.edu.au.Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Case Reports
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26836396

Citation

Padula, Andrew M., and Kenneth D. Winkel. "Fatal Presumed Tiger Snake (Notechis Scutatus) Envenomation in a Cat With Measurement of Venom and Antivenom Concentration." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 113, 2016, pp. 7-10.
Padula AM, Winkel KD. Fatal presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration. Toxicon. 2016;113:7-10.
Padula, A. M., & Winkel, K. D. (2016). Fatal presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 113, 7-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.01.065
Padula AM, Winkel KD. Fatal Presumed Tiger Snake (Notechis Scutatus) Envenomation in a Cat With Measurement of Venom and Antivenom Concentration. Toxicon. 2016;113:7-10. PubMed PMID: 26836396.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fatal presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration. AU - Padula,Andrew M, AU - Winkel,Kenneth D, Y1 - 2016/02/04/ PY - 2015/10/28/received PY - 2016/01/18/revised PY - 2016/01/27/accepted PY - 2016/2/3/entrez PY - 2016/2/3/pubmed PY - 2016/12/15/medline KW - Alpaca KW - Antibodies KW - Camelid antivenoms KW - Cat KW - ELISA KW - Immunoassays KW - Notechis scutatus KW - Snake antivenom snakebite KW - Snake venom KW - Tiger snake KW - Venom SP - 7 EP - 10 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 113 N2 - A fatal outcome of a presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat is described. Detectable venom components and antivenom concentrations in serum from clotted and centrifuged whole blood and urine were measured using a sensitive and specific ELISA. The cat presented in a paralysed state with a markedly elevated serum CK but with normal clotting times. The cat was treated with intravenous fluids and received two vials of equine whole IgG bivalent (tiger and brown snake) antivenom. Despite treatment the cat's condition did not improve and it died 36 h post-presentation. Serum concentration of detectable tiger snake venom components at initial presentation was 311 ng/mL and urine 832 ng/mL, this declined to non-detectable levels in serum 15-min after intravenous antivenom. Urine concentration of detectable tiger snake venom components declined to 22 ng/mL at post-mortem. Measurement of equine anti-tiger snake venom specific antibody demonstrated a concentration of 7.2 Units/mL in serum at post-mortem which had declined from an initial high of 13 Units/mL at 15-min post-antivenom. The ELISA data demonstrated the complete clearance of detectable venom components from serum with no recurrence in the post-mortem samples. Antivenom concentrations in serum at initial presentation were at least 100-fold higher than theoretically required to neutralise the circulating concentrations of venom. Despite the fatal outcome in this case it was concluded that this was unlikely that is was due to insufficient antivenom. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26836396/Fatal_presumed_tiger_snake__Notechis_scutatus__envenomation_in_a_cat_with_measurement_of_venom_and_antivenom_concentration_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(16)30016-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -