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Elevated urinary Na/K ratio among Lebanese elementary school children is attributable to low K intake.
Eur J Nutr 2017; 56(3):1149-1156EJ

Abstract

PURPOSE

To estimate total sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake using non-fasting morning urine specimens among Lebanese elementary (6-10 year old) schoolchildren.

METHOD

A national cross-sectional study was conducted. A multistage cluster sampling procedure was used to select a representative sample of 1403 healthy children from the eight districts of Lebanon. Age, anthropometric measurements, and urine samples were collected and analyzed for Na, K, and creatinine (Cr).

RESULTS

The ratios of Na and K to Cr were 23.93 ± 15.54 mM/mM (4.86 ± 3.16 mg/mg) and 11.48 ± 5.82 mM/mM (3.97 ± 2.01 mg/mg), respectively, and showed differences (P value <0.001) between age groups. No differences were found between boys and girls in all the measured Na and K parameters. The estimated mean Na intake was 96.57 ± 61.67 mM/day (2.220 ± 1.418 g/day or 5.69 ± 3.64 g NaCl/day) and exceeded the upper limit of intake in half the children. Estimated K intake was 46.6 ± 23.02 mM/day (1.822 ± 0.900 g/day), and almost all children failed to meet the recommended daily K intake. The high Na/K ratio (2.361 ± 1.67 mM/mM or 1.39 ± 0.98 mg/mg) resulted from a combination of high Na and low K intake but was mostly affected by K intake.

CONCLUSIONS

About 50 % of children exceeded the recommended daily upper intake for Na, while the majority was below K adequate intake. This unfavorable Na/K ratio is indicative of potentially negative health effects at later stages in life. Interventions aimed at reducing salt intake and increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables are warranted.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon.Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon.Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon.Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon.Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon.Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon. omar.obeid@aub.edu.lb.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26841900

Citation

El Mallah, Carla, et al. "Elevated Urinary Na/K Ratio Among Lebanese Elementary School Children Is Attributable to Low K Intake." European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 3, 2017, pp. 1149-1156.
El Mallah C, Merhi K, Ghattas H, et al. Elevated urinary Na/K ratio among Lebanese elementary school children is attributable to low K intake. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(3):1149-1156.
El Mallah, C., Merhi, K., Ghattas, H., Shatila, D., Francis, S., Hlais, S., ... Obeid, O. (2017). Elevated urinary Na/K ratio among Lebanese elementary school children is attributable to low K intake. European Journal of Nutrition, 56(3), pp. 1149-1156. doi:10.1007/s00394-016-1164-6.
El Mallah C, et al. Elevated Urinary Na/K Ratio Among Lebanese Elementary School Children Is Attributable to Low K Intake. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(3):1149-1156. PubMed PMID: 26841900.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Elevated urinary Na/K ratio among Lebanese elementary school children is attributable to low K intake. AU - El Mallah,Carla, AU - Merhi,Karina, AU - Ghattas,Hala, AU - Shatila,Dareen, AU - Francis,Sirine, AU - Hlais,Sani, AU - Toufeili,Imad, AU - Obeid,Omar, Y1 - 2016/02/03/ PY - 2015/12/01/received PY - 2016/01/20/accepted PY - 2016/2/5/pubmed PY - 2017/8/24/medline PY - 2016/2/5/entrez KW - Lebanese children KW - Potassium intake KW - Sodium intake KW - Urinary potassium-to-creatinine ratio KW - Urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio SP - 1149 EP - 1156 JF - European journal of nutrition JO - Eur J Nutr VL - 56 IS - 3 N2 - PURPOSE: To estimate total sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake using non-fasting morning urine specimens among Lebanese elementary (6-10 year old) schoolchildren. METHOD: A national cross-sectional study was conducted. A multistage cluster sampling procedure was used to select a representative sample of 1403 healthy children from the eight districts of Lebanon. Age, anthropometric measurements, and urine samples were collected and analyzed for Na, K, and creatinine (Cr). RESULTS: The ratios of Na and K to Cr were 23.93 ± 15.54 mM/mM (4.86 ± 3.16 mg/mg) and 11.48 ± 5.82 mM/mM (3.97 ± 2.01 mg/mg), respectively, and showed differences (P value <0.001) between age groups. No differences were found between boys and girls in all the measured Na and K parameters. The estimated mean Na intake was 96.57 ± 61.67 mM/day (2.220 ± 1.418 g/day or 5.69 ± 3.64 g NaCl/day) and exceeded the upper limit of intake in half the children. Estimated K intake was 46.6 ± 23.02 mM/day (1.822 ± 0.900 g/day), and almost all children failed to meet the recommended daily K intake. The high Na/K ratio (2.361 ± 1.67 mM/mM or 1.39 ± 0.98 mg/mg) resulted from a combination of high Na and low K intake but was mostly affected by K intake. CONCLUSIONS: About 50 % of children exceeded the recommended daily upper intake for Na, while the majority was below K adequate intake. This unfavorable Na/K ratio is indicative of potentially negative health effects at later stages in life. Interventions aimed at reducing salt intake and increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables are warranted. SN - 1436-6215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26841900/Elevated_urinary_Na/K_ratio_among_Lebanese_elementary_school_children_is_attributable_to_low_K_intake_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1164-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -