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Associations between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 07; 116(7):1101-13.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The associations between eating frequency and diet quality are inconclusive, which might be a result of different effects of meal frequency and snack frequency.

OBJECTIVE

This cross-sectional study examined the associations of eating frequency, meal frequency, and snack frequency with diet quality, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

DESIGN

Dietary intake was assessed in 19,427 US adults aged 20 years or older, using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All eating occasions providing ≥50 kcal were divided into either meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to daily energy intake (≥15% or <15%), self-report, and time (6 am to 10 am, 12 pm to 3 pm, and 6 pm 9 pm or others). Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010).

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED

Linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations of eating frequency, meal frequency, and snack frequency (independent variables) with dietary intake variables (dependent variables).

RESULTS

Higher eating frequency was modestly and positively associated with higher HEI-2010 in both men and women; one additional eating occasion per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.77 points in men and 2.22 points in women (both P<0.0001). All measures of meal frequency and snack frequency were also modestly and positively associated with HEI-2010 in both sexes, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. However, the associations were stronger for meal frequency than for snack frequency; one additional meal per day increased HEI-2010 by 2.14 to 5.35 points, and one additional snack per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.25 to 1.97 points (all P<0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

In a representative sample of US adults, both meal frequency and snack frequency were modestly associated with better diet quality.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26847912

Citation

Murakami, Kentaro, and M Barbara E. Livingstone. "Associations Between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 116, no. 7, 2016, pp. 1101-13.
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Associations between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(7):1101-13.
Murakami, K., & Livingstone, M. B. (2016). Associations between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(7), 1101-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.012
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Associations Between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(7):1101-13. PubMed PMID: 26847912.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Associations between Meal and Snack Frequency and Diet Quality in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. AU - Murakami,Kentaro, AU - Livingstone,M Barbara E, Y1 - 2016/02/02/ PY - 2015/07/21/received PY - 2015/12/03/accepted PY - 2016/2/6/entrez PY - 2016/2/6/pubmed PY - 2017/6/29/medline KW - Diet quality KW - Meal frequency KW - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) KW - Nutrient intake KW - Snack frequency SP - 1101 EP - 13 JF - Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics JO - J Acad Nutr Diet VL - 116 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: The associations between eating frequency and diet quality are inconclusive, which might be a result of different effects of meal frequency and snack frequency. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study examined the associations of eating frequency, meal frequency, and snack frequency with diet quality, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. DESIGN: Dietary intake was assessed in 19,427 US adults aged 20 years or older, using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All eating occasions providing ≥50 kcal were divided into either meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to daily energy intake (≥15% or <15%), self-report, and time (6 am to 10 am, 12 pm to 3 pm, and 6 pm 9 pm or others). Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations of eating frequency, meal frequency, and snack frequency (independent variables) with dietary intake variables (dependent variables). RESULTS: Higher eating frequency was modestly and positively associated with higher HEI-2010 in both men and women; one additional eating occasion per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.77 points in men and 2.22 points in women (both P<0.0001). All measures of meal frequency and snack frequency were also modestly and positively associated with HEI-2010 in both sexes, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. However, the associations were stronger for meal frequency than for snack frequency; one additional meal per day increased HEI-2010 by 2.14 to 5.35 points, and one additional snack per day increased HEI-2010 by 1.25 to 1.97 points (all P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In a representative sample of US adults, both meal frequency and snack frequency were modestly associated with better diet quality. SN - 2212-2672 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26847912/Associations_between_Meal_and_Snack_Frequency_and_Diet_Quality_in_US_Adults:_National_Health_and_Nutrition_Examination_Survey_2003_2012_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212-2672(15)01808-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -