Myopic Maculopathy and Optic Disc Changes in Highly Myopic Young Asian Eyes and Impact on Visual Acuity.Am J Ophthalmol 2016; 164:69-79AJ
To determine the prevalence and risk factors of myopic maculopathy and specific optic disc and macular changes in highly myopic eyes of young Asian adults and their impact on visual acuity.
Prospective cross-sectional study.
In total, 593 highly myopic (spherical equivalent refraction [SER] less than -6.00 diopters [D]) and 156 emmetropic (SER between -1.00 and +1.00 D) male participants from a population-based survey were included. All participants underwent standardized medical interviews, ophthalmic examination, and color fundus photographs. These photographs were graded systematically to determine the presence of optic disc and macular lesions. Myopic maculopathy was classified based on the International Classification of Myopic Maculopathy.
The mean age was 21.1 ± 1.2 years. The mean SER for the highly myopic and emmetropic group was -8.87 ± 2.11 D and 0.40 ± 0.39 D, respectively (P < .001). Compared to emmetropic eyes, highly myopic eyes were significantly more likely to have optic disc tilt, peripapillary atrophy (PPA), posterior staphyloma, chorioretinal atrophy, and myopic maculopathy (all P < .001). The main findings included PPA (98.3%), disc tilt (22.0%), posterior staphyloma (32.0%), and chorioretinal atrophy (8.3%). Myopic maculopathy was present in 8.3% of highly myopic eyes and was associated with older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.66; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.26), reduced choroidal thickness (OR 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98, 0.99), and increased axial length (AL) (OR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.19). The presence of disc tilt, posterior staphyloma, and chorioretinal atrophy were associated with reduced visual acuity.
Our study showed that myopia-related changes of the optic disc and macula were common in highly myopic eyes even at a young age. The risk factors for myopic maculopathy include increased age, longer AL, and reduced choroidal thickness. Some of these changes were associated with reduced central visual function.