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IL-15 Superagonist Expands mCD8+ T, NK and NKT Cells after Burn Injury but Fails to Improve Outcome during Burn Wound Infection.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148452.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Severely burned patients are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections and sepsis, owing to the loss of the protective skin barrier and immunological dysfunction. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) belongs to the IL-2 family of common gamma chain cytokines and stimulates the proliferation and activation of T (specifically memory CD8), NK and NKT cells. It has been shown to preserve T cell function and improve survival during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of IL-15 or IL-15 superagonist (SA) during infection after burn injury has not been evaluated. Moreover, very few, if any, studies have examined, in detail, the effect of burn injury and infection on the adaptive immune system. Thus, we examined the effect of burn and sepsis on adaptive immune cell populations and the effect of IL-15 SA treatment on the host response to infection.

METHODS

Mice were subjected to a 35% total body surface area burn, followed by wound infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In some experiments, IL-15 SA was administered after burn injury, but before infection. Leukocytes in spleen, liver and peritoneal cavity were characterized using flow cytometry. Bacterial clearance, organ injury and survival were also assessed.

RESULTS

Burn wound infection led to a significant decline in total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and induced organ injury and sepsis. Burn injury caused decline in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen, which was worsened by infection. IL-15 treatment inhibited this decline and significantly increased cell numbers and activation, as determined by CD69 expression, of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells in the spleen and liver after burn injury. However, IL-15 SA treatment failed to prevent burn wound sepsis-induced loss of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells and failed to improve bacterial clearance and survival.

CONCLUSION

Cutaneous burn injury and infection cause significant adaptive immune dysfunction. IL-15 SA does not augment host resistance to burn wound sepsis in mice despite inducing proliferation and activation of lymphocyte subsets.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States of America.Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States of America.Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States of America.Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States of America.Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States of America.Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States of America.Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States of America. Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26859674

Citation

Patil, Naeem K., et al. "IL-15 Superagonist Expands mCD8+ T, NK and NKT Cells After Burn Injury but Fails to Improve Outcome During Burn Wound Infection." PloS One, vol. 11, no. 2, 2016, pp. e0148452.
Patil NK, Luan L, Bohannon JK, et al. IL-15 Superagonist Expands mCD8+ T, NK and NKT Cells after Burn Injury but Fails to Improve Outcome during Burn Wound Infection. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(2):e0148452.
Patil, N. K., Luan, L., Bohannon, J. K., Guo, Y., Hernandez, A., Fensterheim, B., & Sherwood, E. R. (2016). IL-15 Superagonist Expands mCD8+ T, NK and NKT Cells after Burn Injury but Fails to Improve Outcome during Burn Wound Infection. PloS One, 11(2), e0148452. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148452
Patil NK, et al. IL-15 Superagonist Expands mCD8+ T, NK and NKT Cells After Burn Injury but Fails to Improve Outcome During Burn Wound Infection. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(2):e0148452. PubMed PMID: 26859674.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - IL-15 Superagonist Expands mCD8+ T, NK and NKT Cells after Burn Injury but Fails to Improve Outcome during Burn Wound Infection. AU - Patil,Naeem K, AU - Luan,Liming, AU - Bohannon,Julia K, AU - Guo,Yin, AU - Hernandez,Antonio, AU - Fensterheim,Benjamin, AU - Sherwood,Edward R, Y1 - 2016/02/09/ PY - 2015/11/08/received PY - 2016/01/18/accepted PY - 2016/2/10/entrez PY - 2016/2/10/pubmed PY - 2016/7/20/medline SP - e0148452 EP - e0148452 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 11 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Severely burned patients are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections and sepsis, owing to the loss of the protective skin barrier and immunological dysfunction. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) belongs to the IL-2 family of common gamma chain cytokines and stimulates the proliferation and activation of T (specifically memory CD8), NK and NKT cells. It has been shown to preserve T cell function and improve survival during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of IL-15 or IL-15 superagonist (SA) during infection after burn injury has not been evaluated. Moreover, very few, if any, studies have examined, in detail, the effect of burn injury and infection on the adaptive immune system. Thus, we examined the effect of burn and sepsis on adaptive immune cell populations and the effect of IL-15 SA treatment on the host response to infection. METHODS: Mice were subjected to a 35% total body surface area burn, followed by wound infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In some experiments, IL-15 SA was administered after burn injury, but before infection. Leukocytes in spleen, liver and peritoneal cavity were characterized using flow cytometry. Bacterial clearance, organ injury and survival were also assessed. RESULTS: Burn wound infection led to a significant decline in total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and induced organ injury and sepsis. Burn injury caused decline in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen, which was worsened by infection. IL-15 treatment inhibited this decline and significantly increased cell numbers and activation, as determined by CD69 expression, of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells in the spleen and liver after burn injury. However, IL-15 SA treatment failed to prevent burn wound sepsis-induced loss of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells and failed to improve bacterial clearance and survival. CONCLUSION: Cutaneous burn injury and infection cause significant adaptive immune dysfunction. IL-15 SA does not augment host resistance to burn wound sepsis in mice despite inducing proliferation and activation of lymphocyte subsets. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26859674/IL_15_Superagonist_Expands_mCD8+_T_NK_and_NKT_Cells_after_Burn_Injury_but_Fails_to_Improve_Outcome_during_Burn_Wound_Infection_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148452 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -