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Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.
Br J Nutr. 2016 Apr 14; 115(7):1232-9.BJ

Abstract

There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Calcium Research Unit,Department of Food and Environmental Sciences,Division of Nutrition,PO Box 66,University of Helsinki,FI-00014 Helsinki,Finland.1Calcium Research Unit,Department of Food and Environmental Sciences,Division of Nutrition,PO Box 66,University of Helsinki,FI-00014 Helsinki,Finland.1Calcium Research Unit,Department of Food and Environmental Sciences,Division of Nutrition,PO Box 66,University of Helsinki,FI-00014 Helsinki,Finland.1Calcium Research Unit,Department of Food and Environmental Sciences,Division of Nutrition,PO Box 66,University of Helsinki,FI-00014 Helsinki,Finland.1Calcium Research Unit,Department of Food and Environmental Sciences,Division of Nutrition,PO Box 66,University of Helsinki,FI-00014 Helsinki,Finland.2Division of Food Technology,National Food Institute,Technical University of Denmark,2860 Soborg,Denmark.3School of Food and Nutritional Sciences,Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research,University College Cork,T12 E31 Cork,Republic of Ireland.1Calcium Research Unit,Department of Food and Environmental Sciences,Division of Nutrition,PO Box 66,University of Helsinki,FI-00014 Helsinki,Finland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26864127

Citation

Itkonen, Suvi T., et al. "Effects of Vitamin D2-fortified Bread V. Supplementation With Vitamin D2 or D3 On Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Metabolites: an 8-week Randomised-controlled Trial in Young Adult Finnish Women." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 115, no. 7, 2016, pp. 1232-9.
Itkonen ST, Skaffari E, Saaristo P, et al. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(7):1232-9.
Itkonen, S. T., Skaffari, E., Saaristo, P., Saarnio, E. M., Erkkola, M., Jakobsen, J., Cashman, K. D., & Lamberg-Allardt, C. (2016). Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women. The British Journal of Nutrition, 115(7), 1232-9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516000192
Itkonen ST, et al. Effects of Vitamin D2-fortified Bread V. Supplementation With Vitamin D2 or D3 On Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Metabolites: an 8-week Randomised-controlled Trial in Young Adult Finnish Women. Br J Nutr. 2016 Apr 14;115(7):1232-9. PubMed PMID: 26864127.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women. AU - Itkonen,Suvi T, AU - Skaffari,Essi, AU - Saaristo,Pilvi, AU - Saarnio,Elisa M, AU - Erkkola,Maijaliisa, AU - Jakobsen,Jette, AU - Cashman,Kevin D, AU - Lamberg-Allardt,Christel, Y1 - 2016/02/11/ PY - 2016/2/12/entrez PY - 2016/2/13/pubmed PY - 2016/8/4/medline KW - 25-Hydroxyvitamin D KW - 25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 KW - 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 KW - Bioavailability KW - D2 vitamin D2 KW - D3 vitamin D3 KW - S-25(OH)D serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D KW - S-25(OH)D2 serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 KW - S-25(OH)D3 serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 KW - S-PTH serum parathyroid hormone KW - UV-irradiated yeast KW - Vitamin D2 KW - Vitamin D3 SP - 1232 EP - 9 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br J Nutr VL - 115 IS - 7 N2 - There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26864127/Effects_of_vitamin_D2_fortified_bread_v__supplementation_with_vitamin_D2_or_D3_on_serum_25_hydroxyvitamin_D_metabolites:_an_8_week_randomised_controlled_trial_in_young_adult_Finnish_women_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114516000192/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -