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Breakfast-Skipping and Selecting Low-Nutritional-Quality Foods for Breakfast Are Common among Low-Income Urban Children, Regardless of Food Security Status.
J Nutr. 2016 Mar; 146(3):630-6.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Universal access to the School Breakfast Program (SBP) is intended to help low-income and food-insecure students overcome barriers to eating breakfast. However, SBP participation is often still low despite universal access. Further information is needed with regard to these children's breakfast behaviors, and in particular breakfast behaviors among youth from food-insecure families, to inform effective breakfast interventions.

OBJECTIVES

The objective of this study was to examine breakfast behaviors among a large sample of urban students with universal access to the SBP and to identify differences in breakfast behaviors among children from food-secure compared with food-insecure households.

METHODS

A cross-sectional study of 821 fourth- through sixth-grade students and their parents from 16 schools was conducted. Students reported the foods/drinks selected and location of obtaining food/drink on the morning of data collection, parents reported household food security status using the 6-item Food Security Survey Module, and the school district provided SBP participation data during the fall semester of 2013. Multivariable linear regression models accounting for school-level clustering were used to examine differences in breakfast behaviors across 3 levels of household food security: food secure, low food secure, and very low food secure.

RESULTS

Students participated in the SBP 31.2% of possible days, with 13% never participating in the SBP. One-fifth (19.4%) of students purchased something from a corner store for breakfast, and 16.9% skipped breakfast. Forty-six percent of students were food insecure; few differences in breakfast behaviors were observed across levels of food security.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite universal access to the SBP, participation in the SBP is low. Breakfast skipping and selection of foods of low nutritional quality in the morning are common, regardless of household food security status. Additional novel implementation of the SBP and addressing students' breakfast preferences may be necessary to further reduce barriers to students obtaining a free, healthful breakfast. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01924130.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and.Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and.Social and Behavioral Sciences, College of Public Health, and Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA;Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA;The Food Trust, Philadelphia, PA; and.The Food Trust, Philadelphia, PA; and.The Food Trust, Philadelphia, PA; and.Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA; Weight Watchers International, New York, NY.Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA; kwbauer@umich.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26865650

Citation

Dykstra, Holly, et al. "Breakfast-Skipping and Selecting Low-Nutritional-Quality Foods for Breakfast Are Common Among Low-Income Urban Children, Regardless of Food Security Status." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 146, no. 3, 2016, pp. 630-6.
Dykstra H, Davey A, Fisher JO, et al. Breakfast-Skipping and Selecting Low-Nutritional-Quality Foods for Breakfast Are Common among Low-Income Urban Children, Regardless of Food Security Status. J Nutr. 2016;146(3):630-6.
Dykstra, H., Davey, A., Fisher, J. O., Polonsky, H., Sherman, S., Abel, M. L., Dale, L. C., Foster, G. D., & Bauer, K. W. (2016). Breakfast-Skipping and Selecting Low-Nutritional-Quality Foods for Breakfast Are Common among Low-Income Urban Children, Regardless of Food Security Status. The Journal of Nutrition, 146(3), 630-6. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.115.225516
Dykstra H, et al. Breakfast-Skipping and Selecting Low-Nutritional-Quality Foods for Breakfast Are Common Among Low-Income Urban Children, Regardless of Food Security Status. J Nutr. 2016;146(3):630-6. PubMed PMID: 26865650.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Breakfast-Skipping and Selecting Low-Nutritional-Quality Foods for Breakfast Are Common among Low-Income Urban Children, Regardless of Food Security Status. AU - Dykstra,Holly, AU - Davey,Adam, AU - Fisher,Jennifer O, AU - Polonsky,Heather, AU - Sherman,Sandra, AU - Abel,Michelle L, AU - Dale,Lauren C, AU - Foster,Gary D, AU - Bauer,Katherine W, Y1 - 2016/02/10/ PY - 2015/10/09/received PY - 2016/01/11/accepted PY - 2016/2/12/entrez PY - 2016/2/13/pubmed PY - 2016/7/12/medline KW - School Breakfast Program KW - breakfast KW - children KW - dietary intake KW - food insecurity SP - 630 EP - 6 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 146 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Universal access to the School Breakfast Program (SBP) is intended to help low-income and food-insecure students overcome barriers to eating breakfast. However, SBP participation is often still low despite universal access. Further information is needed with regard to these children's breakfast behaviors, and in particular breakfast behaviors among youth from food-insecure families, to inform effective breakfast interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine breakfast behaviors among a large sample of urban students with universal access to the SBP and to identify differences in breakfast behaviors among children from food-secure compared with food-insecure households. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 821 fourth- through sixth-grade students and their parents from 16 schools was conducted. Students reported the foods/drinks selected and location of obtaining food/drink on the morning of data collection, parents reported household food security status using the 6-item Food Security Survey Module, and the school district provided SBP participation data during the fall semester of 2013. Multivariable linear regression models accounting for school-level clustering were used to examine differences in breakfast behaviors across 3 levels of household food security: food secure, low food secure, and very low food secure. RESULTS: Students participated in the SBP 31.2% of possible days, with 13% never participating in the SBP. One-fifth (19.4%) of students purchased something from a corner store for breakfast, and 16.9% skipped breakfast. Forty-six percent of students were food insecure; few differences in breakfast behaviors were observed across levels of food security. CONCLUSIONS: Despite universal access to the SBP, participation in the SBP is low. Breakfast skipping and selection of foods of low nutritional quality in the morning are common, regardless of household food security status. Additional novel implementation of the SBP and addressing students' breakfast preferences may be necessary to further reduce barriers to students obtaining a free, healthful breakfast. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01924130. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26865650/Breakfast_Skipping_and_Selecting_Low_Nutritional_Quality_Foods_for_Breakfast_Are_Common_among_Low_Income_Urban_Children_Regardless_of_Food_Security_Status_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.115.225516 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -