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The Endocannabinoid System in the Retina: From Physiology to Practical and Therapeutic Applications.
Neural Plast 2016; 2016:2916732NP

Abstract

Cannabis is one of the most prevalent drugs used in industrialized countries. The main effects of Cannabis are mediated by two major exogenous cannabinoids: ∆9-tetrahydroxycannabinol and cannabidiol. They act on specific endocannabinoid receptors, especially types 1 and 2. Mammals are endowed with a functional cannabinoid system including cannabinoid receptors, ligands, and enzymes. This endocannabinoid signaling pathway is involved in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions with a main role in the biology of the central nervous system. As the retina is a part of the central nervous system due to its embryonic origin, we aim at providing the relevance of studying the endocannabinoid system in the retina. Here, we review the distribution of the cannabinoid receptors, ligands, and enzymes in the retina and focus on the role of the cannabinoid system in retinal neurobiology. This review describes the presence of the cannabinoid system in critical stages of retinal processing and its broad involvement in retinal neurotransmission, neuroplasticity, and neuroprotection. Accordingly, we support the use of synthetic cannabinoids as new neuroprotective drugs to prevent and treat retinal diseases. Finally, we argue for the relevance of functional retinal measures in cannabis users to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on human retinal processing.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pôle Hospitalo-Universitaire de Psychiatrie, Centre Psychothérapique de Nancy, Laxou, France; EA7298, INGRES, Université de Lorraine, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France; INSERM U1114, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Département de Psychiatrie, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.Pôle Hospitalo-Universitaire de Psychiatrie, Centre Psychothérapique de Nancy, Laxou, France; EA7298, INGRES, Université de Lorraine, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Maison des Addictions, CHU Nancy, Nancy, France.Service d'Ophtalmologie, CHU Nancy, Nancy, France.INSERM U1114, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Département de Psychiatrie, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.Pôle Hospitalo-Universitaire de Psychiatrie, Centre Psychothérapique de Nancy, Laxou, France; EA7298, INGRES, Université de Lorraine, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Maison des Addictions, CHU Nancy, Nancy, France.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26881099

Citation

Schwitzer, Thomas, et al. "The Endocannabinoid System in the Retina: From Physiology to Practical and Therapeutic Applications." Neural Plasticity, vol. 2016, 2016, p. 2916732.
Schwitzer T, Schwan R, Angioi-Duprez K, et al. The Endocannabinoid System in the Retina: From Physiology to Practical and Therapeutic Applications. Neural Plast. 2016;2016:2916732.
Schwitzer, T., Schwan, R., Angioi-Duprez, K., Giersch, A., & Laprevote, V. (2016). The Endocannabinoid System in the Retina: From Physiology to Practical and Therapeutic Applications. Neural Plasticity, 2016, p. 2916732. doi:10.1155/2016/2916732.
Schwitzer T, et al. The Endocannabinoid System in the Retina: From Physiology to Practical and Therapeutic Applications. Neural Plast. 2016;2016:2916732. PubMed PMID: 26881099.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Endocannabinoid System in the Retina: From Physiology to Practical and Therapeutic Applications. AU - Schwitzer,Thomas, AU - Schwan,Raymund, AU - Angioi-Duprez,Karine, AU - Giersch,Anne, AU - Laprevote,Vincent, Y1 - 2016/01/06/ PY - 2015/06/26/received PY - 2015/11/23/accepted PY - 2016/2/17/entrez PY - 2016/2/18/pubmed PY - 2016/12/15/medline SP - 2916732 EP - 2916732 JF - Neural plasticity JO - Neural Plast. VL - 2016 N2 - Cannabis is one of the most prevalent drugs used in industrialized countries. The main effects of Cannabis are mediated by two major exogenous cannabinoids: ∆9-tetrahydroxycannabinol and cannabidiol. They act on specific endocannabinoid receptors, especially types 1 and 2. Mammals are endowed with a functional cannabinoid system including cannabinoid receptors, ligands, and enzymes. This endocannabinoid signaling pathway is involved in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions with a main role in the biology of the central nervous system. As the retina is a part of the central nervous system due to its embryonic origin, we aim at providing the relevance of studying the endocannabinoid system in the retina. Here, we review the distribution of the cannabinoid receptors, ligands, and enzymes in the retina and focus on the role of the cannabinoid system in retinal neurobiology. This review describes the presence of the cannabinoid system in critical stages of retinal processing and its broad involvement in retinal neurotransmission, neuroplasticity, and neuroprotection. Accordingly, we support the use of synthetic cannabinoids as new neuroprotective drugs to prevent and treat retinal diseases. Finally, we argue for the relevance of functional retinal measures in cannabis users to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on human retinal processing. SN - 1687-5443 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26881099/The_Endocannabinoid_System_in_the_Retina:_From_Physiology_to_Practical_and_Therapeutic_Applications_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2916732 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -