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Marine anoxia and delayed Earth system recovery after the end-Permian extinction.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 01; 113(9):2360-5.PN

Abstract

Delayed Earth system recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction is often attributed to severe ocean anoxia. However, the extent and duration of Early Triassic anoxia remains poorly constrained. Here we use paired records of uranium concentrations ([U]) and (238)U/(235)U isotopic compositions (δ(238)U) of Upper Permian-Upper Triassic marine limestones from China and Turkey to quantify variations in global seafloor redox conditions. We observe abrupt decreases in [U] and δ(238)U across the end-Permian extinction horizon, from ∼3 ppm and -0.15‰ to ∼0.3 ppm and -0.77‰, followed by a gradual return to preextinction values over the subsequent 5 million years. These trends imply a factor of 100 increase in the extent of seafloor anoxia and suggest the presence of a shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that inhibited the recovery of benthic animal diversity and marine ecosystem function. We hypothesize that in the Early Triassic oceans-characterized by prolonged shallow anoxia that may have impinged onto continental shelves-global biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystem structure became more sensitive to variation in the position of the OMZ. Under this hypothesis, the Middle Triassic decline in bottom water anoxia, stabilization of biogeochemical cycles, and diversification of marine animals together reflect the development of a deeper and less extensive OMZ, which regulated Earth system recovery following the end-Permian catastrophe.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; kvlau@stanford.edu.Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305;Department of Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey;Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305;Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802;Geosciences Department, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212;Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204;Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305;College of Resource and Environment Engineering, Guizhou University, 550003 Guizhou, China.Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305;

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26884155

Citation

Lau, Kimberly V., et al. "Marine Anoxia and Delayed Earth System Recovery After the end-Permian Extinction." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 113, no. 9, 2016, pp. 2360-5.
Lau KV, Maher K, Altiner D, et al. Marine anoxia and delayed Earth system recovery after the end-Permian extinction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2016;113(9):2360-5.
Lau, K. V., Maher, K., Altiner, D., Kelley, B. M., Kump, L. R., Lehrmann, D. J., Silva-Tamayo, J. C., Weaver, K. L., Yu, M., & Payne, J. L. (2016). Marine anoxia and delayed Earth system recovery after the end-Permian extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(9), 2360-5. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1515080113
Lau KV, et al. Marine Anoxia and Delayed Earth System Recovery After the end-Permian Extinction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2016 Mar 1;113(9):2360-5. PubMed PMID: 26884155.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Marine anoxia and delayed Earth system recovery after the end-Permian extinction. AU - Lau,Kimberly V, AU - Maher,Kate, AU - Altiner,Demir, AU - Kelley,Brian M, AU - Kump,Lee R, AU - Lehrmann,Daniel J, AU - Silva-Tamayo,Juan Carlos, AU - Weaver,Karrie L, AU - Yu,Meiyi, AU - Payne,Jonathan L, Y1 - 2016/02/16/ PY - 2016/2/18/entrez PY - 2016/2/18/pubmed PY - 2016/8/2/medline KW - Early Triassic KW - biogeochemical cycling KW - carbon isotopes KW - paleoredox KW - uranium isotopes SP - 2360 EP - 5 JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America JO - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. VL - 113 IS - 9 N2 - Delayed Earth system recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction is often attributed to severe ocean anoxia. However, the extent and duration of Early Triassic anoxia remains poorly constrained. Here we use paired records of uranium concentrations ([U]) and (238)U/(235)U isotopic compositions (δ(238)U) of Upper Permian-Upper Triassic marine limestones from China and Turkey to quantify variations in global seafloor redox conditions. We observe abrupt decreases in [U] and δ(238)U across the end-Permian extinction horizon, from ∼3 ppm and -0.15‰ to ∼0.3 ppm and -0.77‰, followed by a gradual return to preextinction values over the subsequent 5 million years. These trends imply a factor of 100 increase in the extent of seafloor anoxia and suggest the presence of a shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that inhibited the recovery of benthic animal diversity and marine ecosystem function. We hypothesize that in the Early Triassic oceans-characterized by prolonged shallow anoxia that may have impinged onto continental shelves-global biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystem structure became more sensitive to variation in the position of the OMZ. Under this hypothesis, the Middle Triassic decline in bottom water anoxia, stabilization of biogeochemical cycles, and diversification of marine animals together reflect the development of a deeper and less extensive OMZ, which regulated Earth system recovery following the end-Permian catastrophe. SN - 1091-6490 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26884155/Marine_anoxia_and_delayed_Earth_system_recovery_after_the_end_Permian_extinction_ L2 - http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=26884155 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -