Alcohol effects on cognitive and personality style in women with special reference to primary and secondary process.Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1989 Oct; 13(5):644-8.AC
Changes in primary and secondary process functioning as well as in experienced locus of control as indicators of cognitive style were examined as a function of alcohol intoxication. Women subjects drank 1.0 ml of pure alcohol/kg body weight and were compared to a placebo and a control group. Results indicated a significant shift in locus of control toward greater externality and a significant shift in cognitive style from a dominance of secondary process when sober to a dominance of primary process when intoxicated. These shifts were discussed as indicative of the pharmacological properties of alcohol and were related to the disinhibition and the arousal hypotheses. Alternative explanations were also discussed.