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Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.
J Occup Environ Hyg. 2016 07; 13(7):549-57.JO

Abstract

Exposure to diesel engine exhaust has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of chemical substances, including a particulate fraction mainly composed of ultrafine particles, resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel. Diesel trucks are known to be an important source of diesel-related air pollution, and areas with heavy truck traffic are associated with higher air pollution levels and increased public health problems. Several indicators have been proposed as surrogates for estimating exposures to diesel exhaust but very few studies have focused specifically on monitoring the ultrafine fraction through the measurement of particle number concentrations. The aim of this study is to assess occupational exposures of gate controllers at the port of Montreal, Canada, to diesel engine emissions from container trucks by measuring several surrogates through a multimetric approach which includes the assessment of both mass and number concentrations and the use of direct reading devices. A 10-day measurement campaign was carried out at two terminal checkpoints at the port of Montreal. Respirable elemental and organic carbon, PM1, PM2.5, PMresp (PM4), PM10, PMtot (inhalable fraction), particle number concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas concentrations (NO2, NO, CO) were monitored. Gate controllers were exposed to concentrations of contaminants associated with diesel engine exhaust (elemental carbon GM = 1.6 µg/m(3); GSD = 1.6) well below recommended occupational exposure limits. Average daily particle number concentrations ranged from 16,544-67,314 particles/cm[3] (GM = 32,710 particles/cm[3]; GSD = 1.6). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between daily elemental carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations, as well as between total carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations. Significant correlation coefficients were found between particle number concentrations and the number of trucks and wind speed (R(2) = 0.432; p < 0.01). The presence of trucks with cooling systems and older trucks with older exhaust systems was associated with peak concentrations on the direct reading instruments. The results highlight the relevance of direct reading instruments in helping to identify sources of exposure and suggest that monitoring particle number concentrations improves understanding of workers' exposures to diesel exhaust. This study, by quantifying workers' exposure levels through a multimetric approach, contributes to the further understanding of occupational exposures to diesel engine exhaust.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Institut de recherche en santé publique de l'Université de Montréal (IRSPUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal , Montréal , Québec , Canada.a Institut de recherche en santé publique de l'Université de Montréal (IRSPUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal , Montréal , Québec , Canada.a Institut de recherche en santé publique de l'Université de Montréal (IRSPUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal , Montréal , Québec , Canada.a Institut de recherche en santé publique de l'Université de Montréal (IRSPUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal , Montréal , Québec , Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26891343

Citation

Debia, Maximilien, et al. "Diesel Exhaust Exposures in Port Workers." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, vol. 13, no. 7, 2016, pp. 549-57.
Debia M, Neesham-Grenon E, Mudaheranwa OC, et al. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2016;13(7):549-57.
Debia, M., Neesham-Grenon, E., Mudaheranwa, O. C., & Ragettli, M. S. (2016). Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 13(7), 549-57. https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2016.1153802
Debia M, et al. Diesel Exhaust Exposures in Port Workers. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2016;13(7):549-57. PubMed PMID: 26891343.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers. AU - Debia,Maximilien, AU - Neesham-Grenon,Eve, AU - Mudaheranwa,Oliver C, AU - Ragettli,Martina S, PY - 2016/2/19/entrez PY - 2016/2/19/pubmed PY - 2017/11/9/medline KW - Diesel KW - elemental carbon KW - exposure KW - number concentration KW - ultrafine particles SP - 549 EP - 57 JF - Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene JO - J Occup Environ Hyg VL - 13 IS - 7 N2 - Exposure to diesel engine exhaust has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of chemical substances, including a particulate fraction mainly composed of ultrafine particles, resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel. Diesel trucks are known to be an important source of diesel-related air pollution, and areas with heavy truck traffic are associated with higher air pollution levels and increased public health problems. Several indicators have been proposed as surrogates for estimating exposures to diesel exhaust but very few studies have focused specifically on monitoring the ultrafine fraction through the measurement of particle number concentrations. The aim of this study is to assess occupational exposures of gate controllers at the port of Montreal, Canada, to diesel engine emissions from container trucks by measuring several surrogates through a multimetric approach which includes the assessment of both mass and number concentrations and the use of direct reading devices. A 10-day measurement campaign was carried out at two terminal checkpoints at the port of Montreal. Respirable elemental and organic carbon, PM1, PM2.5, PMresp (PM4), PM10, PMtot (inhalable fraction), particle number concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas concentrations (NO2, NO, CO) were monitored. Gate controllers were exposed to concentrations of contaminants associated with diesel engine exhaust (elemental carbon GM = 1.6 µg/m(3); GSD = 1.6) well below recommended occupational exposure limits. Average daily particle number concentrations ranged from 16,544-67,314 particles/cm[3] (GM = 32,710 particles/cm[3]; GSD = 1.6). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between daily elemental carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations, as well as between total carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations. Significant correlation coefficients were found between particle number concentrations and the number of trucks and wind speed (R(2) = 0.432; p < 0.01). The presence of trucks with cooling systems and older trucks with older exhaust systems was associated with peak concentrations on the direct reading instruments. The results highlight the relevance of direct reading instruments in helping to identify sources of exposure and suggest that monitoring particle number concentrations improves understanding of workers' exposures to diesel exhaust. This study, by quantifying workers' exposure levels through a multimetric approach, contributes to the further understanding of occupational exposures to diesel engine exhaust. SN - 1545-9632 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26891343/Diesel_exhaust_exposures_in_port_workers_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -