Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

The role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in increasing vitamin D intake in Irish preschool children.
Eur J Nutr. 2017 Apr; 56(3):1219-1231.EJ

Abstract

PURPOSE

There are limited data on the contribution of fortified foods and nutritional supplements to intakes of vitamin D in young children. Our objective was to examine the intake, adequacy, risk of excessive intake and sources of dietary vitamin D.

METHODS

The nationally representative cross-sectional dietary survey of young children (aged 1-4 years) (n 500) was used to evaluate vitamin D intake and quantify the contribution of the base diet, fortified foods and nutritional supplements to total intake.

RESULTS

Median (IQR) intakes of vitamin D were generally low in this young population, ranging from 2.0 (1.9) to 2.5 (4.9) µg/day. Ninety-three and 78 % of children had intakes below 10 and 5 µg/day, respectively. While vitamin D supplement users (17 %) had the highest intakes [6.7 (6.4) µg/day] (P < 0.001), 74 % had intakes below 10 µg/day. Vitamin D-fortified foods, consumed by 77 % of children [2.2 (2.0) µg/day], made nutritionally significant contributions to intake [0.8 (1.6) µg/day], particularly in younger children [1.5 (4.6) µg/day]. Children who did not use nutritional supplements or fortified foods had significantly (P < 0.001) lower intakes of vitamin D than the other groups [1.0 (0.8) µg/day]. Our analyses show the importance of milk and yoghurt, meat and fortified ready-to-eat cereals as sources of vitamin D in this age group. The use of nutritional supplements or fortified foods at current levels does not represent a risk of intakes exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) tolerable upper intake level (UL) (50 µg/day), as intakes did not exceed or even approach the UL (P95: 22 % of UL).

CONCLUSION

Intakes of vitamin D in preschool children in Ireland are generally low. Nutritional supplements and fortified foods make significant contributions to intakes of vitamin D, without risk of unacceptably high intakes. Though supplements are effective in raising intakes of vitamin D in users, uptake is low (17 %). Food fortification may represent a suitable public health approach to increasing vitamin D intakes. The national food consumption data of Irish preschool children provide the ideal starting point for modelling of fortification scenarios to identify which foods and levels of addition will ensure effective and safe increases in vitamin D intake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. a.hennessy@ucc.ie.School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. The Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (Infant), University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26895200

Citation

Hennessy, Áine, et al. "The Role of Fortified Foods and Nutritional Supplements in Increasing Vitamin D Intake in Irish Preschool Children." European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 3, 2017, pp. 1219-1231.
Hennessy Á, Browne F, Kiely M, et al. The role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in increasing vitamin D intake in Irish preschool children. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(3):1219-1231.
Hennessy, Á., Browne, F., Kiely, M., Walton, J., & Flynn, A. (2017). The role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in increasing vitamin D intake in Irish preschool children. European Journal of Nutrition, 56(3), 1219-1231. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1171-7
Hennessy Á, et al. The Role of Fortified Foods and Nutritional Supplements in Increasing Vitamin D Intake in Irish Preschool Children. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(3):1219-1231. PubMed PMID: 26895200.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in increasing vitamin D intake in Irish preschool children. AU - Hennessy,Áine, AU - Browne,Fiona, AU - Kiely,Mairead, AU - Walton,Janette, AU - Flynn,Albert, Y1 - 2016/02/19/ PY - 2015/07/07/received PY - 2016/02/02/accepted PY - 2016/2/20/pubmed PY - 2017/8/24/medline PY - 2016/2/20/entrez KW - Adequacy KW - Excessive intake KW - Fortified foods KW - Nutritional supplements KW - Preschool children KW - Vitamin D SP - 1219 EP - 1231 JF - European journal of nutrition JO - Eur J Nutr VL - 56 IS - 3 N2 - PURPOSE: There are limited data on the contribution of fortified foods and nutritional supplements to intakes of vitamin D in young children. Our objective was to examine the intake, adequacy, risk of excessive intake and sources of dietary vitamin D. METHODS: The nationally representative cross-sectional dietary survey of young children (aged 1-4 years) (n 500) was used to evaluate vitamin D intake and quantify the contribution of the base diet, fortified foods and nutritional supplements to total intake. RESULTS: Median (IQR) intakes of vitamin D were generally low in this young population, ranging from 2.0 (1.9) to 2.5 (4.9) µg/day. Ninety-three and 78 % of children had intakes below 10 and 5 µg/day, respectively. While vitamin D supplement users (17 %) had the highest intakes [6.7 (6.4) µg/day] (P < 0.001), 74 % had intakes below 10 µg/day. Vitamin D-fortified foods, consumed by 77 % of children [2.2 (2.0) µg/day], made nutritionally significant contributions to intake [0.8 (1.6) µg/day], particularly in younger children [1.5 (4.6) µg/day]. Children who did not use nutritional supplements or fortified foods had significantly (P < 0.001) lower intakes of vitamin D than the other groups [1.0 (0.8) µg/day]. Our analyses show the importance of milk and yoghurt, meat and fortified ready-to-eat cereals as sources of vitamin D in this age group. The use of nutritional supplements or fortified foods at current levels does not represent a risk of intakes exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) tolerable upper intake level (UL) (50 µg/day), as intakes did not exceed or even approach the UL (P95: 22 % of UL). CONCLUSION: Intakes of vitamin D in preschool children in Ireland are generally low. Nutritional supplements and fortified foods make significant contributions to intakes of vitamin D, without risk of unacceptably high intakes. Though supplements are effective in raising intakes of vitamin D in users, uptake is low (17 %). Food fortification may represent a suitable public health approach to increasing vitamin D intakes. The national food consumption data of Irish preschool children provide the ideal starting point for modelling of fortification scenarios to identify which foods and levels of addition will ensure effective and safe increases in vitamin D intake. SN - 1436-6215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26895200/The_role_of_fortified_foods_and_nutritional_supplements_in_increasing_vitamin_D_intake_in_Irish_preschool_children_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1171-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -