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Energy compensation and nutrient displacement following regular consumption of hazelnuts and other energy-dense snack foods in non-obese individuals.
Eur J Nutr. 2017 Apr; 56(3):1255-1267.EJ

Abstract

PURPOSE

Regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease risk, partly from improvements to dietary quality. Examining how individuals make dietary changes when consuming nuts may reveal key behavioural eating patterns beneficial for the development of dietary interventions. We examined the effects of nuts in comparison with other energy-dense snacks on energy compensation, nutrient displacement, and food group patterns.

METHODS

This was a 12-week randomised, controlled, parallel study with four arms: ~1100 kJ/day for each of hazelnuts (42 g), chocolate (50 g), potato crisps (50 g), or no added snack food. Diet records, body composition, and physical activity were measured at baseline and week 12, in 102 non-obese participants.

RESULTS

Significant improvements in diet quality were observed in the hazelnut group, particularly when consumed as snacks. Intakes of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and vitamin E were significantly higher (all P < 0.05), whereas saturated fat and carbohydrate were significantly lower (both P ≤ 0.022) in the hazelnut group compared to the other groups. Partial energy compensation did not differ significantly between groups, but nutrient displacement values for MUFA and fibre differed significantly. Within the hazelnut group, there was nearly complete displacement for fibre, partial displacement for energy, protein, total fat, MUFA, PUFA, potassium, folate, and vitamin E, and overcompensation for carbohydrate and sugar.

CONCLUSIONS

Our results demonstrate that energy compensation occurs for all three intervention snacks in this non-obese population. Regular nut consumption significantly improves nutrient profiles compared to other snacks with changes occurring at the snack level.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand.Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, 14 Medical Drive, #07-02, Singapore, 117599, Singapore.Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand.Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand.Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. rachel.brown@otago.ac.nz.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26897125

Citation

Pearson, Katherine R., et al. "Energy Compensation and Nutrient Displacement Following Regular Consumption of Hazelnuts and Other Energy-dense Snack Foods in Non-obese Individuals." European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 3, 2017, pp. 1255-1267.
Pearson KR, Tey SL, Gray AR, et al. Energy compensation and nutrient displacement following regular consumption of hazelnuts and other energy-dense snack foods in non-obese individuals. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(3):1255-1267.
Pearson, K. R., Tey, S. L., Gray, A. R., Chisholm, A., & Brown, R. C. (2017). Energy compensation and nutrient displacement following regular consumption of hazelnuts and other energy-dense snack foods in non-obese individuals. European Journal of Nutrition, 56(3), 1255-1267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1176-2
Pearson KR, et al. Energy Compensation and Nutrient Displacement Following Regular Consumption of Hazelnuts and Other Energy-dense Snack Foods in Non-obese Individuals. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(3):1255-1267. PubMed PMID: 26897125.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Energy compensation and nutrient displacement following regular consumption of hazelnuts and other energy-dense snack foods in non-obese individuals. AU - Pearson,Katherine R, AU - Tey,Siew Ling, AU - Gray,Andrew R, AU - Chisholm,Alexandra, AU - Brown,Rachel C, Y1 - 2016/02/20/ PY - 2015/07/21/received PY - 2016/02/06/accepted PY - 2016/2/22/pubmed PY - 2017/8/24/medline PY - 2016/2/22/entrez KW - Energy compensation KW - Hazelnuts KW - Nutrient displacement KW - Nutrient intake KW - Snack SP - 1255 EP - 1267 JF - European journal of nutrition JO - Eur J Nutr VL - 56 IS - 3 N2 - PURPOSE: Regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease risk, partly from improvements to dietary quality. Examining how individuals make dietary changes when consuming nuts may reveal key behavioural eating patterns beneficial for the development of dietary interventions. We examined the effects of nuts in comparison with other energy-dense snacks on energy compensation, nutrient displacement, and food group patterns. METHODS: This was a 12-week randomised, controlled, parallel study with four arms: ~1100 kJ/day for each of hazelnuts (42 g), chocolate (50 g), potato crisps (50 g), or no added snack food. Diet records, body composition, and physical activity were measured at baseline and week 12, in 102 non-obese participants. RESULTS: Significant improvements in diet quality were observed in the hazelnut group, particularly when consumed as snacks. Intakes of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and vitamin E were significantly higher (all P < 0.05), whereas saturated fat and carbohydrate were significantly lower (both P ≤ 0.022) in the hazelnut group compared to the other groups. Partial energy compensation did not differ significantly between groups, but nutrient displacement values for MUFA and fibre differed significantly. Within the hazelnut group, there was nearly complete displacement for fibre, partial displacement for energy, protein, total fat, MUFA, PUFA, potassium, folate, and vitamin E, and overcompensation for carbohydrate and sugar. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that energy compensation occurs for all three intervention snacks in this non-obese population. Regular nut consumption significantly improves nutrient profiles compared to other snacks with changes occurring at the snack level. SN - 1436-6215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26897125/Energy_compensation_and_nutrient_displacement_following_regular_consumption_of_hazelnuts_and_other_energy_dense_snack_foods_in_non_obese_individuals_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1176-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -