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Missing Lunch is Associated with Lower Intakes of Micronutrients from Foods and Beverages among Children and Adolescents in the United States.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Apr; 116(4):667-76.e6.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In the United States, the lunch meal contributes more than 20% of the daily intakes of most micronutrients for children and adolescents consuming lunch. Seven percent to 20% of children and adolescents in the United States do not eat lunch on a given day.

OBJECTIVE

To identify differences in total micro- and macronutrient intakes of children consuming and missing lunch on a given day.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional secondary analysis of the combined National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009-2010 and 2011-2012. Dietary intake was assessed using the first day 24-hour recall of each respondent.

PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample represents the total noninstitutionalized civilian population residing in the United States. The sample used in this study included 4,755 children aged 4 to 18 years with complete data for all analyses.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Total day, lunch, and nonlunch micronutrients, macronutrients, solid fats, and added sugar intakes were examined.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED

Linear regression models controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, household poverty status, and weekend were used to compare dietary intakes of lunch consumers and nonconsumers. Intakes from nonlunch sources were examined to determine the extent to which differences between lunch consumers and nonconsumers could be attributed to the lunch meal.

RESULTS

Missing lunch was associated with lower micronutrient intakes, with the lunch meal primarily responsible for the higher micronutrient intakes of lunch consumers compared with nonconsumers. Missing lunch was also associated with lower energy, fiber, and sodium intakes. Added sugar and solid fat intakes of lunch consumers and nonconsumers were not significantly different.

CONCLUSIONS

This study identifies potential concerns for children missing lunch with respect to micronutrient intakes and shows that the lunches consumed by children in the United States are an important source of essential nutrients, but also less healthful dietary components.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26899193

Citation

Mathias, Kevin C., et al. "Missing Lunch Is Associated With Lower Intakes of Micronutrients From Foods and Beverages Among Children and Adolescents in the United States." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 116, no. 4, 2016, pp. 667-76.e6.
Mathias KC, Jacquier E, Eldridge AL. Missing Lunch is Associated with Lower Intakes of Micronutrients from Foods and Beverages among Children and Adolescents in the United States. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(4):667-76.e6.
Mathias, K. C., Jacquier, E., & Eldridge, A. L. (2016). Missing Lunch is Associated with Lower Intakes of Micronutrients from Foods and Beverages among Children and Adolescents in the United States. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(4), 667-e6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.021
Mathias KC, Jacquier E, Eldridge AL. Missing Lunch Is Associated With Lower Intakes of Micronutrients From Foods and Beverages Among Children and Adolescents in the United States. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(4):667-76.e6. PubMed PMID: 26899193.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Missing Lunch is Associated with Lower Intakes of Micronutrients from Foods and Beverages among Children and Adolescents in the United States. AU - Mathias,Kevin C, AU - Jacquier,Emma, AU - Eldridge,Alison L, Y1 - 2016/02/16/ PY - 2015/06/26/received PY - 2015/12/18/accepted PY - 2016/2/23/entrez PY - 2016/2/24/pubmed PY - 2016/8/16/medline KW - Discretionary calories KW - Lunch quality KW - Meal patterns KW - Meal skipping KW - Nutrient inadequacy SP - 667 EP - 76.e6 JF - Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics JO - J Acad Nutr Diet VL - 116 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: In the United States, the lunch meal contributes more than 20% of the daily intakes of most micronutrients for children and adolescents consuming lunch. Seven percent to 20% of children and adolescents in the United States do not eat lunch on a given day. OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in total micro- and macronutrient intakes of children consuming and missing lunch on a given day. DESIGN: Cross-sectional secondary analysis of the combined National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009-2010 and 2011-2012. Dietary intake was assessed using the first day 24-hour recall of each respondent. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample represents the total noninstitutionalized civilian population residing in the United States. The sample used in this study included 4,755 children aged 4 to 18 years with complete data for all analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total day, lunch, and nonlunch micronutrients, macronutrients, solid fats, and added sugar intakes were examined. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Linear regression models controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, household poverty status, and weekend were used to compare dietary intakes of lunch consumers and nonconsumers. Intakes from nonlunch sources were examined to determine the extent to which differences between lunch consumers and nonconsumers could be attributed to the lunch meal. RESULTS: Missing lunch was associated with lower micronutrient intakes, with the lunch meal primarily responsible for the higher micronutrient intakes of lunch consumers compared with nonconsumers. Missing lunch was also associated with lower energy, fiber, and sodium intakes. Added sugar and solid fat intakes of lunch consumers and nonconsumers were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies potential concerns for children missing lunch with respect to micronutrient intakes and shows that the lunches consumed by children in the United States are an important source of essential nutrients, but also less healthful dietary components. SN - 2212-2672 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26899193/Missing_Lunch_is_Associated_with_Lower_Intakes_of_Micronutrients_from_Foods_and_Beverages_among_Children_and_Adolescents_in_the_United_States_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212-2672(15)01841-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -