Early morning glycaemia and the metabolic consequences of delaying breakfast/morning insulin. A comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple injection therapy with human isophane or human ultralente insulin at bedtime in insulin-dependent diabetics.Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1989 Nov; 49(7):653-9.SJ
We studied morning glycaemia and metabolic consequences of delaying morning insulin/breakfast in insulin-dependent diabetics on (i) continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) (n = 27), (ii) multiple-injection therapy (MI) with human isophane insulin at bedtime (MI/human isophane) (n = 23) and (iii) MI with human ultralente insulin at bedtime (MI/human ultralente) (n = 14). After an overnight fast, food and insulin (except for the basal infusion on CSII) were withheld, and blood glucose, serum free insulin and serum betahydroxybutyrate were followed from 0800 hours to 1300 hours. At all times blood glucose was lowest on CSII, intermediate on MI/human isophane and highest on MI/human ultralente; serum free insulin was highest on CSII, intermediate on MI/human ultralente and lowest on MI/human isophane; serum betahydroxybutyrate was lowest on CSII, intermediate on MI/human ultralente and highest on MI/human isophane. Blood glucose rose significantly on MI/human isophane (p less than 0.001) and CSII (p less than 0.02); serum free insulin declined significantly on MI/human isophane (p less than 0.001), and betahydroxybutyrate rose significantly on all regimens. Morning metabolic control is better with CSII than MI. Human isophane insulin is preferable to human ultralente insulin overnight in MI. Delaying morning insulin is not advisable on intensified insulin regimens, being most unfavourable with MI/human isophane.