Distribution of Major Chlorogenic Acids and Related Compounds in Brazilian Green and Toasted Ilex paraguariensis (Maté) Leaves.J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Mar 23; 64(11):2361-70.JA
Ilex paraguariensis (maté) is one of the best sources of chlorogenic acids (CGA) in nature. When leaves are toasted, some isomers are partly transformed into 1,5-γ-quinolactones (CGL). Both CGA and CGL are important contributors to the brew's flavor and are thought to contribute to human health. In this study, we quantified 9 CGA, 2 CGL, and caffeic acid in 20 samples of dried green and toasted maté that are commercially available in Brazil. Total CGA content in green maté varied from 8.7 to 13.2 g/100 g, dry weight (dw). Caffeic acid content varied from 10.8 to 13.5 mg/100 g dw, respectively. Content in toasted maté varied from 1.5 to 4.6 g/100 g and from 1.5 to 7.2 mg/100 g dw, respectively. Overall, caffeoylquinic acid isomers (CQA) were the most abundant CGA in both green and toasted maté, followed by dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) and feruloylquinic acids (FQA). These classes accounted for 58.5%, 40.0%, and 1.5% of CGA, respectively, in green maté and 76.3%, 20.7%, and 3.0%, respectively, in toasted maté. Average contents of 3-caffeoylquinolactone (3-CQL) and 4-caffeoylquinolactone (4-CQL) in commercial toasted samples were 101.5 mg/100 g and 61.8 mg/100 g dw, respectively. These results show that, despite overall losses during the toasting process, CGA concentrations are still substantial in toasted leaves, compared to other food sources of CGA and phenolic compounds in general. In addition to evaluating commercial samples, investigation of changes in CGA profile and formation of 1,5-γ-quinolactones was performed in experimental maté toasting.