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Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.
Toxicon. 2016 May; 114:59-64.T

Abstract

This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (<0.015 ng/mL), consistent with complete binding of venom antigens by the alpaca antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia. Electronic address: andrew.padula@unimelb.edu.au.Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Case Reports
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26930223

Citation

Padula, Andrew M., and Kenneth D. Winkel. "Successful Use of Camelid (alpaca) Antivenom to Treat a Potentially Lethal Tiger Snake (Notechis Scutatus) Envenomation in a Dog." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 114, 2016, pp. 59-64.
Padula AM, Winkel KD. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog. Toxicon. 2016;114:59-64.
Padula, A. M., & Winkel, K. D. (2016). Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 114, 59-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.02.018
Padula AM, Winkel KD. Successful Use of Camelid (alpaca) Antivenom to Treat a Potentially Lethal Tiger Snake (Notechis Scutatus) Envenomation in a Dog. Toxicon. 2016;114:59-64. PubMed PMID: 26930223.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog. AU - Padula,Andrew M, AU - Winkel,Kenneth D, Y1 - 2016/02/27/ PY - 2015/10/28/received PY - 2016/01/19/revised PY - 2016/02/18/accepted PY - 2016/3/2/entrez PY - 2016/3/2/pubmed PY - 2016/12/31/medline KW - Alpaca KW - Antibodies KW - Camelid antivenoms KW - Dog KW - ELISA KW - Immunoassays KW - Notechis scutatus KW - Snake antivenom snakebite KW - Snake venom KW - Tiger snake KW - Venom SP - 59 EP - 64 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 114 N2 - This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (<0.015 ng/mL), consistent with complete binding of venom antigens by the alpaca antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26930223/Successful_use_of_camelid__alpaca__antivenom_to_treat_a_potentially_lethal_tiger_snake__Notechis_scutatus__envenomation_in_a_dog_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(16)30035-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -