[Effect of mid- and long-term schistosomiasis control plan and discussion of consolidation strategy in marshland endemic regions].Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2015 Oct; 27(5):457-62.ZX
To evaluate the effectiveness of mid- and long-term schistosomiasis control plan and explore the consolidation strategy in marshland endemic regions, so as to provide an effective approach for interrupting and eliminating schistosomiasis in the regions.
A prospective field study was designed. Dantu District of Zhenjiang City, a marshland schistosomiasis endemic region, was selected, and the "key village, key environment, and key water regions" comprehensive control strategy was implemented according to the endemic level of schistosomiasis. The morbidity due to schistosomiasis in humans and domestic animals, and Oncomelania hupensis snails were surveyed, and the data of the implementation of control measures were collected. The schistosomiasis morbidity and snail status were compared before and after the implementation of the mid- and long-term plan for schistosomiasis prevention and control, and the changing trends of human, domestic animal and snail infections were plotted.
During the implementation of the plan from 2005 to 2014, 16.84 km concrete and bank protection and 9 snail sinks were built, 10 culverts re-built, 3.85 hm2 fences were constructed, 29.5 thousand domestic animals were examined and treated, 170 cattle were eliminated, 4930 hm2 fishing farms were built for snail control, 1 560.00 hM2 land were improved, and 376.00 hm2 forests were built for snail control. In addition, 19,364.80 hm2 snail areas were surveyed, 4694.6 hm2 area received molluscicide, 207.9 thousand of people (person-times) received the examination and treatment, 69.1 thousand of harmless toilets were built, 282.2 thousand health education materials and protection materials were allocated, 958 warning signs were established, and 5435 slogans were pasted or hung. After the implementation of the mid- and long-term plan, the percentages of human, bovine and snail infections appeared decline tendencies year by year, and reduced from 0.08%, 1.28% and 0.13% in 2005 to 0 in 2014, respectively, while the areas with snails and infected snails reduced from 284.34 hm2 and 55.10 hm2 in 2005 to 73.60 hm2 and 0 hm2 in 2014, with reduction rates of 74.12% and 100%, respectively. The infection rate of sheep appeared a fluctuation between 2005 and 2014, with the rate of 1.13% in 2005, 0 in 2007 and 2008, rising in 2009 and then between 0.25% and 0.95% from 2009 to 2012, and reducing to 0 in 2013 and 2014. During the 10-year period, the number of cattle reduced year by year from 2005 to 2010, and slightly increased after 2011, showing an overall stable level, while the number of sheep increased year by year after 2006, peaked in 2010, and appeared a decline tendency since 2011, which was almost consistent with the fluctuation of schistosome infection rate in sheep.
The sustainable comprehensive control strategy with the "key village, key environments, and key water regions" is an effective approach for schistosomiasis control in marshland endemic regions. However, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis is extremely easy to repeat. The prevention and control of the impact of sheep and wild animals on schistosomiasis transmission should be strengthened in order to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements gained.