Impact of anti-inflammatory nutrients on obesity-associated metabolic-inflammation from childhood through to adulthood.Proc Nutr Soc 2016; 75(2):115-24PN
Obesity-related metabolic conditions such as insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes and CVD share a number of pathological features, one of which is metabolic-inflammation. Metabolic-inflammation results from the infiltration of immune cells into the adipose tissue, driving a pro-inflammatory environment, which can induce IR. Furthermore, resolution of inflammation, an active process wherein the immune system counteracts pro-inflammatory states, may be dysregulated in obesity. Anti-inflammatory nutritional interventions have focused on attenuating this pro-inflammatory environment. Furthermore, with inherent variability among individuals, establishing at-risk populations who respond favourably to nutritional intervention strategies is important. This review will focus on chronic low-grade metabolic-inflammation, resolution of inflammation and the putative role anti-inflammatory nutrients have as a potential therapy. Finally, in the context of personalised nutrition, the approaches used in defining individuals who respond favourably to nutritional interventions will be highlighted. With increasing prevalence of obesity in younger people, age-dependent biological processes, preventative strategies and therapeutic options are important to help protect against development of obesity-associated co-morbidities.