Electrochemical removal of carbamazepine in water with Ti/PbO2 cylindrical mesh anode.Water Sci Technol. 2016; 73(5):1155-65.WS
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most frequently detected organic compounds in the aquatic environment. Due to its bio-persistence and toxicity for humans and the environment its removal has become an important issue. The performance of the electrochemical oxidation process and in situ production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as O3 and H2O2, for CBZ removal have been studied using Ti/PbO2 cylindrical mesh anode in the presence of Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte in a batch electrochemical reactor. In this integrated process, direct oxidation at anode and indirect oxidation by in situ electrogenerated ROS can occur simultaneously. The effect of several factors such as electrolysis time, current intensity, initial pH and oxygen flux was investigated by means of an experimental design methodology, using a 2(4) factorial matrix. CBZ removal of 83.93% was obtained and the most influential parameters turned out to be electrolysis time, current intensity and oxygen flux. Later, the optimal experimental values for CBZ degradation were obtained by means of a central composite design. The best operating conditions, analyzed by Design Expert(®) software, are the following: 110 min of electrolysis at 3.0 A, pH = 7.05 and 2.8 L O2/min. Under these optimal conditions, the model prediction (82.44%) fits very well with the experimental response (83.90 ± 0.8%). Furthermore, chemical oxygen demand decrease was quantified. Our results illustrated significant removal efficiency for the CBZ in optimized condition with second order kinetic reaction.