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An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity.

Abstract

In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    The Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health, 4330 Klingle Street NW, Washington, DC 20016, USA. cgnh@bellatlantic.net.

    Source

    Nutrients 8:3 2016 Mar 02 pg 128

    MeSH

    Adipose Tissue
    Adiposity
    Animals
    Diet
    Dietary Supplements
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Fatty Acids, Omega-6
    Genetic Predisposition to Disease
    Humans
    Obesity
    Phenotype
    Risk Assessment
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26950145

    Citation

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.. "An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity." Nutrients, vol. 8, no. 3, 2016, p. 128.
    Simopoulos AP. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. Nutrients. 2016;8(3):128.
    Simopoulos, A. P. (2016). An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. Nutrients, 8(3), p. 128. doi:10.3390/nu8030128.
    Simopoulos AP. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 2;8(3):128. PubMed PMID: 26950145.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. A1 - Simopoulos,Artemis P, Y1 - 2016/03/02/ PY - 2016/01/15/received PY - 2016/02/10/revised PY - 2016/02/15/accepted PY - 2016/3/8/entrez PY - 2016/3/8/pubmed PY - 2016/12/15/medline KW - FTO (Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated) Gene KW - browning of adipose tissue KW - eicosanoids KW - endocannabinoids KW - obesity KW - omega-6 and omega-3 essential fatty acids KW - omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid ratio SP - 128 EP - 128 JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 8 IS - 3 N2 - In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26950145/full_citation L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu8030128 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -