Optimization of ultrasound-assisted hydroalcoholic extraction of phenolic compounds from walnut leaves using response surface methodology.Pharm Biol. 2016 Oct; 54(10):2176-87.PB
Context Walnut leaves are highly appreciated for their pharmacological effects and therapeutic properties which are mainly attributed to their high content of phenolic compounds. Objective This study optimizes ultrasound assisted hydroalcoholic extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from dried walnut leaves by the maximization of total phenolics content (TPC) and total flavanoids content (TFC) of the extracts. Materials and methods Optimal conditions with regard to ethanol concentration (X1: 12.17-95.83% v/v), extraction time (X2: 8.17-91.83 min) and liquid-to-solid ratio (X3: 4.96-25.04 v/w) were identified using central composite design combined with response surface methodology. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode-array detection was used to quantify phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, salicylic, ellagic and trans-cinnamic), flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, myricetin and quercetin) and juglone in the extracts. Results Liquid-to-solid ratio and ethanol concentration proved to be the primary factors affecting the extraction efficiency. The maximum predicted TPC, under the optimized conditions (61% ethanol concentration, 51.28 min extraction time and 4.96 v/w liquid-to-solid ratio) was 10125.4 mg gallic acid equivalents per liter while maximum TFC (2925 mg quercetin equivalents per liter) occurred at 67.83% ethanol concentration, 4.96 v/w liquid-to-solid ratio and 49.37 min extraction time. High significant correlations were found between antioxidant activity and both TPC (R(2)=()0.81) and TFC (R(2)=()0.78). Discussion and conclusion Extracts very rich in polyphenols could be obtained from walnut leaves by using UAE, aimed at preparing dietary supplements, nutraceuticals or functional food ingredients.