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A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 May; 23(9):8244-59.ES

Abstract

The rational for the study was to review the literature on the toxicity and corresponding mechanisms associated with lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), individually and as mixtures, in the environment. Heavy metals are ubiquitous and generally persist in the environment, enabling them to biomagnify in the food chain. Living systems most often interact with a cocktail of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metal exposure to biological systems may lead to oxidation stress which may induce DNA damage, protein modification, lipid peroxidation, and others. In this review, the major mechanism associated with toxicities of individual metals was the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, toxicities were expressed through depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Interestingly, a metal like Pb becomes toxic to organisms through the depletion of antioxidants while Cd indirectly generates ROS by its ability to replace iron and copper. ROS generated through exposure to arsenic were associated with many modes of action, and heavy metal mixtures were found to have varied effects on organisms. Many models based on concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) have been introduced to help predict toxicities and mechanisms associated with metal mixtures. An integrated model which combines CA and IA was further proposed for evaluating toxicities of non-interactive mixtures. In cases where there are molecular interactions, the toxicogenomic approach was used to predict toxicities. The high-throughput toxicogenomics combines studies in genetics, genome-scale expression, cell and tissue expression, metabolite profiling, and bioinformatics.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, China. wuxy@ujs.edu.cn.School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, China.School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, China.School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, China.School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, China.School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang, 212013, China. yangliuqing@ujs.edu.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26965280

Citation

Wu, Xiangyang, et al. "A Review of Toxicity and Mechanisms of Individual and Mixtures of Heavy Metals in the Environment." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 23, no. 9, 2016, pp. 8244-59.
Wu X, Cobbina SJ, Mao G, et al. A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23(9):8244-59.
Wu, X., Cobbina, S. J., Mao, G., Xu, H., Zhang, Z., & Yang, L. (2016). A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 23(9), 8244-59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6333-x
Wu X, et al. A Review of Toxicity and Mechanisms of Individual and Mixtures of Heavy Metals in the Environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23(9):8244-59. PubMed PMID: 26965280.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment. AU - Wu,Xiangyang, AU - Cobbina,Samuel J, AU - Mao,Guanghua, AU - Xu,Hai, AU - Zhang,Zhen, AU - Yang,Liuqing, Y1 - 2016/03/11/ PY - 2015/08/04/received PY - 2016/02/21/accepted PY - 2016/3/12/entrez PY - 2016/3/12/pubmed PY - 2017/4/5/medline KW - Low dose KW - Metal mixtures KW - Mode of action KW - Oxidative stress KW - Toxicogenomics SP - 8244 EP - 59 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 23 IS - 9 N2 - The rational for the study was to review the literature on the toxicity and corresponding mechanisms associated with lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), individually and as mixtures, in the environment. Heavy metals are ubiquitous and generally persist in the environment, enabling them to biomagnify in the food chain. Living systems most often interact with a cocktail of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metal exposure to biological systems may lead to oxidation stress which may induce DNA damage, protein modification, lipid peroxidation, and others. In this review, the major mechanism associated with toxicities of individual metals was the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, toxicities were expressed through depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Interestingly, a metal like Pb becomes toxic to organisms through the depletion of antioxidants while Cd indirectly generates ROS by its ability to replace iron and copper. ROS generated through exposure to arsenic were associated with many modes of action, and heavy metal mixtures were found to have varied effects on organisms. Many models based on concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) have been introduced to help predict toxicities and mechanisms associated with metal mixtures. An integrated model which combines CA and IA was further proposed for evaluating toxicities of non-interactive mixtures. In cases where there are molecular interactions, the toxicogenomic approach was used to predict toxicities. The high-throughput toxicogenomics combines studies in genetics, genome-scale expression, cell and tissue expression, metabolite profiling, and bioinformatics. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26965280/A_review_of_toxicity_and_mechanisms_of_individual_and_mixtures_of_heavy_metals_in_the_environment_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6333-x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -