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Immediate Effect of Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation on Pain and Muscle Activation in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain.
J Athl Train 2016; 51(2):118-28JA

Abstract

CONTEXT

For individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP), altered muscle activity and pain are common during functional tasks. Clinicians often seek interventions to improve muscle activity and reduce impairments. One intervention that has not been examined in great detail is electrical stimulation.

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether a single patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation (PENS) treatment would alter muscle activity and pain in individuals with PFP during 2 functional tasks, a single-legged squat and a lateral step down.

DESIGN

Cohort study.

SETTING

Sports medicine research laboratory. PATIENTS OF OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 22 individuals with PFP (15 women, 7 men; age = 26.0 ± 7.9 years, height = 173.8 ± 8.1 cm, mass = 75.1 ± 17.9 kg).

INTERVENTION(S)

Participants were randomized into 2 intervention groups: a 15-minute PENS treatment that produced a strong motor response or a 15-minute 1-mA subsensory (sham) treatment.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S)

Before and immediately after the intervention, we assessed normalized electromyography amplitude, percentage of activation time across functional tasks, and onset of activation for the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, gluteus medius, adductor longus, biceps femoris, and medial gastrocnemius muscles during a single-legged squat and a lateral step down. Scores on the visual analog scale for pain were recorded before and after the intervention.

RESULTS

After a single treatment of PENS, the percentage of gluteus medius activation increased (0.024) during the lateral step down. Visual analog scores decreased during both the single-legged squat (PENS: preintervention = 2.7 ± 1.9, postintervention = 0.9 ± 0.7; sham: preintervention = 3.2 ± 1.6, postintervention = 2.8 ± 1.9; group × time interaction: P = .041) and lateral step down (PENS: preintervention = 3.4 ± 2.4, postintervention = 1.1 ± 0.8; sham: preintervention = 3.9 ± 1.7, postintervention = 3.3 ± 2.0; group × time interaction: P = .023). No changes in electromyography or pain measures were noted in the sham group.

CONCLUSIONS

The PFP participants who received PENS had immediate improvement in gluteus medius activation and a reduction in pain during functional tasks.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Kinesiology, Exercise & Sport Injury Laboratory, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.Department of Kinesiology, Exercise & Sport Injury Laboratory, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26967547

Citation

Glaviano, Neal R., and Susan A. Saliba. "Immediate Effect of Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation On Pain and Muscle Activation in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain." Journal of Athletic Training, vol. 51, no. 2, 2016, pp. 118-28.
Glaviano NR, Saliba SA. Immediate Effect of Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation on Pain and Muscle Activation in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain. J Athl Train. 2016;51(2):118-28.
Glaviano, N. R., & Saliba, S. A. (2016). Immediate Effect of Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation on Pain and Muscle Activation in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain. Journal of Athletic Training, 51(2), pp. 118-28. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-51.4.06.
Glaviano NR, Saliba SA. Immediate Effect of Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation On Pain and Muscle Activation in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain. J Athl Train. 2016;51(2):118-28. PubMed PMID: 26967547.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Immediate Effect of Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation on Pain and Muscle Activation in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain. AU - Glaviano,Neal R, AU - Saliba,Susan A, Y1 - 2016/03/11/ PY - 2016/3/12/entrez PY - 2016/3/12/pubmed PY - 2016/10/26/medline KW - anterior knee pain KW - myoelectric stimulation KW - therapeutic modalities SP - 118 EP - 28 JF - Journal of athletic training JO - J Athl Train VL - 51 IS - 2 N2 - CONTEXT: For individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP), altered muscle activity and pain are common during functional tasks. Clinicians often seek interventions to improve muscle activity and reduce impairments. One intervention that has not been examined in great detail is electrical stimulation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a single patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation (PENS) treatment would alter muscle activity and pain in individuals with PFP during 2 functional tasks, a single-legged squat and a lateral step down. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Sports medicine research laboratory. PATIENTS OF OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 22 individuals with PFP (15 women, 7 men; age = 26.0 ± 7.9 years, height = 173.8 ± 8.1 cm, mass = 75.1 ± 17.9 kg). INTERVENTION(S): Participants were randomized into 2 intervention groups: a 15-minute PENS treatment that produced a strong motor response or a 15-minute 1-mA subsensory (sham) treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Before and immediately after the intervention, we assessed normalized electromyography amplitude, percentage of activation time across functional tasks, and onset of activation for the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, gluteus medius, adductor longus, biceps femoris, and medial gastrocnemius muscles during a single-legged squat and a lateral step down. Scores on the visual analog scale for pain were recorded before and after the intervention. RESULTS: After a single treatment of PENS, the percentage of gluteus medius activation increased (0.024) during the lateral step down. Visual analog scores decreased during both the single-legged squat (PENS: preintervention = 2.7 ± 1.9, postintervention = 0.9 ± 0.7; sham: preintervention = 3.2 ± 1.6, postintervention = 2.8 ± 1.9; group × time interaction: P = .041) and lateral step down (PENS: preintervention = 3.4 ± 2.4, postintervention = 1.1 ± 0.8; sham: preintervention = 3.9 ± 1.7, postintervention = 3.3 ± 2.0; group × time interaction: P = .023). No changes in electromyography or pain measures were noted in the sham group. CONCLUSIONS: The PFP participants who received PENS had immediate improvement in gluteus medius activation and a reduction in pain during functional tasks. SN - 1938-162X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26967547/Immediate_Effect_of_Patterned_Electrical_Neuromuscular_Stimulation_on_Pain_and_Muscle_Activation_in_Individuals_With_Patellofemoral_Pain_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/26967547/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -