Chemical composition and source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in different functional areas of Lanzhou, China.J Environ Sci (China) 2016; 40:75-83JE
To elucidate the air pollution characteristics of northern China, airborne PM10 (atmospheric dynamic equivalent diameter ≤ 10 μm) and PM2.5 (atmospheric dynamic equivalent diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) were sampled in three different functional areas (Yuzhong County, Xigu District and Chengguan District) of Lanzhou, and their chemical composition (elements, ions, carbonaceous species) was analyzed. The results demonstrated that the highest seasonal mean concentrations of PM10 (369.48 μg/m(3)) and PM2.5 (295.42 μg/m(3)) were detected in Xigu District in the winter, the lowest concentration of PM2.5 (53.15 μg/m(3)) was observed in Yuzhong District in the fall and PM10 (89.60 μg/m(3)) in Xigu District in the fall. The overall average OC/EC (organic carbon/elemental carbon) value was close to the representative OC/EC ratio for coal consumption, implying that the pollution of Lanzhou could be attributed to the burning of coal. The content of SNA (the sum of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, SNA) in PM2.5 in Yuzhong County was generally lower than that at other sites in all seasons. The content of SNA in PM2.5 and PM10 in Yuzhong County was generally lower than that at other sites in all seasons (0.24-0.38), indicating that the conversion ratios from precursors to secondary aerosols in the low concentration area was slower than in the area with high and intense pollutants. Six primary particulate matter sources were chosen based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, and emissions from dust, secondary aerosols, and coal burning were identified to be the primary sources responsible for the particle pollution in Lanzhou.