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Antifungal potential of Sideroxylon obtusifolium and Syzygium cumini and their mode of action against Candida albicans.
Pharm Biol. 2016 Oct; 54(10):2312-9.PB

Abstract

Context The emergence of resistant pathogens and toxicity of antifungals have encouraged an active search for novel candidates to manage Candida biofilms. Objective In this study, the little known species Sideroxylon obtusifolium T.D. Penn (Sapotacea) and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae), from the Caatinga biome in Brazil were chemically characterized and explored for their antifungal potential against C. albicans. Materials and methods We determined the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts/fractions upon fungal growth (minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations, MIC/MFC), biofilm morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and viability (confocal laser scanning microscopy), proposed their mode of action (sorbitol and ergosterol assays), and finally investigated their effects against macrophage and keratinocyte cells in a cell-based assay. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey-Kramer post-test (α = 0.05). Results The n-butanol (Nb) fraction from S. obtusifolium and S. cumini extract (Sc) showed flavonoids (39.11 ± 6.62 mg/g) and saponins (820.35 ± 225.38 mg/g), respectively, in their chemical composition and demonstrated antifungal activity, with MICs of 62.5 and 125 μg/mL, respectively. Nb and Sc may complex with ergosterol as there was a 4-16-fold increase in MICs in the presence of exogenous ergosterol, leading to disrupted permeability of cell membrane. Deleterious effects were observed on morphology and viability of treated biofilms from concentrations as low as their MICs and higher. Sc was not toxic to macrophages and keratinocytes at these concentrations (p > 0.05), unlike Nb. Conclusions Nb and Sc demonstrated considerable antifungal activity and should be further investigated as potential alternative candidates to treat Candida biofilms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Department of Dentistry , State University of Paraiba , Campina Grande , PB , Brazil ;b Division of Pharmacology, Anesthesiology and Therapeutics, Department of Physiological Sciences , Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas , Piracicaba , SP , Brazil ;b Division of Pharmacology, Anesthesiology and Therapeutics, Department of Physiological Sciences , Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas , Piracicaba , SP , Brazil ;b Division of Pharmacology, Anesthesiology and Therapeutics, Department of Physiological Sciences , Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas , Piracicaba , SP , Brazil ;c Department of Pharmacy , State University of Paraiba , Campina Grande , PB , Brazil.b Division of Pharmacology, Anesthesiology and Therapeutics, Department of Physiological Sciences , Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas , Piracicaba , SP , Brazil ;

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26987037

Citation

Pereira, Jozinete Vieira, et al. "Antifungal Potential of Sideroxylon Obtusifolium and Syzygium Cumini and Their Mode of Action Against Candida Albicans." Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 54, no. 10, 2016, pp. 2312-9.
Pereira JV, Freires IA, Castilho AR, et al. Antifungal potential of Sideroxylon obtusifolium and Syzygium cumini and their mode of action against Candida albicans. Pharm Biol. 2016;54(10):2312-9.
Pereira, J. V., Freires, I. A., Castilho, A. R., da Cunha, M. G., Alves, H. d. a. . S., & Rosalen, P. L. (2016). Antifungal potential of Sideroxylon obtusifolium and Syzygium cumini and their mode of action against Candida albicans. Pharmaceutical Biology, 54(10), 2312-9. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2016.1155629
Pereira JV, et al. Antifungal Potential of Sideroxylon Obtusifolium and Syzygium Cumini and Their Mode of Action Against Candida Albicans. Pharm Biol. 2016;54(10):2312-9. PubMed PMID: 26987037.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antifungal potential of Sideroxylon obtusifolium and Syzygium cumini and their mode of action against Candida albicans. AU - Pereira,Jozinete Vieira, AU - Freires,Irlan Almeida, AU - Castilho,Aline Rogéria, AU - da Cunha,Marcos Guilherme, AU - Alves,Harley da Silva, AU - Rosalen,Pedro Luiz, Y1 - 2016/03/17/ PY - 2016/3/18/entrez PY - 2016/3/18/pubmed PY - 2017/2/9/medline KW - Antifungals KW - flavonoids KW - natural products KW - saponins SP - 2312 EP - 9 JF - Pharmaceutical biology JO - Pharm Biol VL - 54 IS - 10 N2 - Context The emergence of resistant pathogens and toxicity of antifungals have encouraged an active search for novel candidates to manage Candida biofilms. Objective In this study, the little known species Sideroxylon obtusifolium T.D. Penn (Sapotacea) and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae), from the Caatinga biome in Brazil were chemically characterized and explored for their antifungal potential against C. albicans. Materials and methods We determined the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts/fractions upon fungal growth (minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations, MIC/MFC), biofilm morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and viability (confocal laser scanning microscopy), proposed their mode of action (sorbitol and ergosterol assays), and finally investigated their effects against macrophage and keratinocyte cells in a cell-based assay. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey-Kramer post-test (α = 0.05). Results The n-butanol (Nb) fraction from S. obtusifolium and S. cumini extract (Sc) showed flavonoids (39.11 ± 6.62 mg/g) and saponins (820.35 ± 225.38 mg/g), respectively, in their chemical composition and demonstrated antifungal activity, with MICs of 62.5 and 125 μg/mL, respectively. Nb and Sc may complex with ergosterol as there was a 4-16-fold increase in MICs in the presence of exogenous ergosterol, leading to disrupted permeability of cell membrane. Deleterious effects were observed on morphology and viability of treated biofilms from concentrations as low as their MICs and higher. Sc was not toxic to macrophages and keratinocytes at these concentrations (p > 0.05), unlike Nb. Conclusions Nb and Sc demonstrated considerable antifungal activity and should be further investigated as potential alternative candidates to treat Candida biofilms. SN - 1744-5116 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26987037/Antifungal_potential_of_Sideroxylon_obtusifolium_and_Syzygium_cumini_and_their_mode_of_action_against_Candida_albicans_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -