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Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons.
Sci Adv. 2016 Feb; 2(2):e1501130.SA

Abstract

Rising atmospheric CO2 is causing the oceans to both warm and acidify, which could reduce the calcification rates of corals globally. Successful coral recruitment and high rates of juvenile calcification are critical to the replenishment and ultimate viability of coral reef ecosystems. Although elevated Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2) has been shown to reduce the skeletal weight of coral recruits, the structural changes caused by acidification during initial skeletal deposition are unknown. We show, using high-resolution three-dimensional x-ray microscopy, that ocean acidification (Pco2 ~900 μatm, pH ~7.7) not only causes reduced overall mineral deposition but also a deformed and porous skeletal structure in newly settled coral recruits. In contrast, elevated temperature (+3°C) had little effect on skeletal formation except to partially mitigate the effects of elevated Pco2. The striking structural deformities we observed show that new recruits are at significant risk, being unable to effectively build their skeletons in the Pco2 conditions predicted to occur for open ocean surface waters under a "business-as-usual" emissions scenario [RCP (representative concentration pathway) 8.5] by the year 2100.

Authors+Show Affiliations

UWA School of Earth and Environment, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.; UWA Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.UWA School of Earth and Environment, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.; UWA Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.UWA School of Earth and Environment, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.; UWA Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.UWA Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.; Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26989776

Citation

Foster, Taryn, et al. "Ocean Acidification Causes Structural Deformities in Juvenile Coral Skeletons." Science Advances, vol. 2, no. 2, 2016, pp. e1501130.
Foster T, Falter JL, McCulloch MT, et al. Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons. Sci Adv. 2016;2(2):e1501130.
Foster, T., Falter, J. L., McCulloch, M. T., & Clode, P. L. (2016). Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons. Science Advances, 2(2), e1501130. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1501130
Foster T, et al. Ocean Acidification Causes Structural Deformities in Juvenile Coral Skeletons. Sci Adv. 2016;2(2):e1501130. PubMed PMID: 26989776.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons. AU - Foster,Taryn, AU - Falter,James L, AU - McCulloch,Malcolm T, AU - Clode,Peta L, Y1 - 2016/02/19/ PY - 2015/08/19/received PY - 2015/12/07/accepted PY - 2016/3/19/entrez PY - 2016/3/19/pubmed PY - 2016/3/19/medline KW - 3D x-ray microscopy, subtropical KW - Houtman Abrolhos Islands KW - Ocean acidification KW - PCO2 KW - asymmetry KW - coral calcification KW - juvenile skeleton KW - porous KW - structural deformities KW - temperature SP - e1501130 EP - e1501130 JF - Science advances JO - Sci Adv VL - 2 IS - 2 N2 - Rising atmospheric CO2 is causing the oceans to both warm and acidify, which could reduce the calcification rates of corals globally. Successful coral recruitment and high rates of juvenile calcification are critical to the replenishment and ultimate viability of coral reef ecosystems. Although elevated Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2) has been shown to reduce the skeletal weight of coral recruits, the structural changes caused by acidification during initial skeletal deposition are unknown. We show, using high-resolution three-dimensional x-ray microscopy, that ocean acidification (Pco2 ~900 μatm, pH ~7.7) not only causes reduced overall mineral deposition but also a deformed and porous skeletal structure in newly settled coral recruits. In contrast, elevated temperature (+3°C) had little effect on skeletal formation except to partially mitigate the effects of elevated Pco2. The striking structural deformities we observed show that new recruits are at significant risk, being unable to effectively build their skeletons in the Pco2 conditions predicted to occur for open ocean surface waters under a "business-as-usual" emissions scenario [RCP (representative concentration pathway) 8.5] by the year 2100. SN - 2375-2548 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26989776/Ocean_acidification_causes_structural_deformities_in_juvenile_coral_skeletons_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1501130 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -