Evolution and perspectives of cultivar identification and traceability from tree to oil and table olives by means of DNA markers.J Sci Food Agric. 2016 Aug; 96(11):3642-57.JS
In recent years, an increasing number of typicality marks has been awarded to high-quality olive oils produced from local cultivars. In this case, quality control requires effective varietal checks of the starting materials. Moreover, accurate cultivar identification is essential in vegetative-propagated plants distributed by nurseries and is a pre-requisite to register new cultivars. Food genomics provides many tools for cultivar identification and traceability from tree to oil and table olives. The results of the application of different classes of DNA markers to olive with the purpose of checking cultivar identity and variability of plant material are extensively discussed in this review, with special regard to repeatability issues and polymorphism degree. The characterization of olive germplasm from all countries of the Mediterranean basin and from less studied geographical areas is described and innovative high-throughput molecular tools to manage reference collections are reviewed. Then the transferability of DNA markers to processed products - virgin olive oils and table olives - is overviewed to point out strengths and weaknesses, with special regard to (i) the influence of processing steps and storage time on the quantity and quality of residual DNA, (ii) recent advances to overcome the bottleneck of DNA extraction from processed products, (iii) factors affecting whole comparability of DNA profiles between fresh plant materials and end-products, (iv) drawbacks in the analysis of multi-cultivar versus single-cultivar end-products and (v) the potential of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.