Fatty Liver, Insulin Resistance, and Obesity: Relationships With Increase in Coronary Artery Calcium Over Time.Clin Cardiol. 2016 Jun; 39(6):321-8.CC
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance (IR), and obesity frequently coexist with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but it is uncertain whether these risk factors for vascular disease contribute to a change in atherosclerosis over time, independently of DM status.
We hypothesized that the combination of fatty liver, IR, and obesity would be associated with an increase in coronary artery calcium (CAC) score over time, independently of DM status, other cardiovascular risk factors, and medications.
Data were analyzed from a South Korean occupational cohort of 2175 people. The outcome was increase in cardiac computed tomography CAC score between baseline and follow-up. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥75th percentile and fatty liver by ultrasound.
In 592 (27.2%) participants, CAC score increased from baseline (mean ± SD; mean age at baseline, 44.8 ± 5.5 years); and in 1583 subjects, CAC did not change or improved during follow-up (mean age, 41.6 ± 5.6 years). Diabetes mellitus, HOMA-IR, fatty liver, and obesity prevalence were all higher (all P < 0.001) in participants whose CAC score increased from baseline. Adjusting for DM and potential confounders, the combination of IR, obesity, and fatty liver was independently associated with increase in CAC score over time (hazard ratio: 2.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.50-4.03).
The combination of fatty liver, IR, and obesity is associated with progression of atherosclerosis over time independently of DM, cardiovascular risk factors, and all medications for cardiovascular disease and DM.