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Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.
Br J Nutr. 2016 May 28; 115(10):1819-29.BJ

Abstract

The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %), self-report and time (06.00-09.00, 12.00-14.00 and 17.00-20.00 hours or others). When analysed without adjustment for the ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF and SF showed inverse or null associations with overweight (BMI≥85th percentile of BMI-for-age) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥90th percentile) in both children and adolescents. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF and SF, but not MF, showed positive associations in children, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Department of Nutrition,School of Human Cultures,University of Shiga Prefecture,Shiga 522 8533,Japan.2Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health,Ulster University,Coleraine BT52 1SA,UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27001436

Citation

Murakami, Kentaro, and M Barbara E. Livingstone. "Associations Between Meal and Snack Frequency and Overweight and Abdominal Obesity in US Children and Adolescents From National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 115, no. 10, 2016, pp. 1819-29.
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(10):1819-29.
Murakami, K., & Livingstone, M. B. (2016). Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012. The British Journal of Nutrition, 115(10), 1819-29. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516000854
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Associations Between Meal and Snack Frequency and Overweight and Abdominal Obesity in US Children and Adolescents From National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012. Br J Nutr. 2016 May 28;115(10):1819-29. PubMed PMID: 27001436.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012. AU - Murakami,Kentaro, AU - Livingstone,M Barbara E, Y1 - 2016/03/22/ PY - 2016/3/23/entrez PY - 2016/3/24/pubmed PY - 2016/9/1/medline KW - EER estimated energy requirement KW - EF eating frequency KW - EI energy intake KW - EI:EER ratio of EI:EER KW - MF meal frequency KW - MFenergy% MF determined based on percentage contribution to total EI KW - Meal frequency KW - NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey KW - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey KW - Obesity KW - SF snack frequency KW - SFenergy% SF determined based on percentage contribution to total EI KW - Snack frequency KW - WC waist circumference SP - 1819 EP - 29 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br J Nutr VL - 115 IS - 10 N2 - The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %), self-report and time (06.00-09.00, 12.00-14.00 and 17.00-20.00 hours or others). When analysed without adjustment for the ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF and SF showed inverse or null associations with overweight (BMI≥85th percentile of BMI-for-age) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥90th percentile) in both children and adolescents. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF and SF, but not MF, showed positive associations in children, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27001436/Associations_between_meal_and_snack_frequency_and_overweight_and_abdominal_obesity_in_US_children_and_adolescents_from_National_Health_and_Nutrition_Examination_Survey__NHANES__2003_2012_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114516000854/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -