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Variation in secondary metabolite production as well as antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) at different stages of growth.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Mar 22; 16:104.BC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Zingiber zerumbet (L.) is a traditional Malaysian folk remedy that contains several interesting bioactive compounds of pharmaceutical quality.

METHODS

Total flavonoids and total phenolics content from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of Z. zerumbet at 3 different growth stages (3, 6, and 9 months) were determined using spectrophotometric methods and individual flavonoid and phenolic compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Chalcone Synthase (CHS) activity was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disc diffusion method.

RESULTS

Highest content of total flavonoid [29.7 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry material (DM)] and total phenolic (44.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DM) were detected in the rhizome extracts of 9-month-old plants. As the plant matured from 3 to 9 months, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) decreased in the leaf, but increased significantly in the rhizomes. Among the secondary metabolites identified, the most abundant, based on the concentrations, were as follows: flavonoids, catechin > quercetin > rutin > luteolin > myricetin > kaempferol; phenolic acids, gallic acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid > cinnamic acid. Rhizome extracts from 9-month-old plants demonstrated the highest CHS activity (7.48 nkat/mg protein), followed by the 6-month-old rhizomes (5.79 nkat/mg protein) and 3-month-old leaf (4.76 nkat/mg protein). Nine-month-old rhizomes exhibited the highest DPPH activity (76.42 %), followed by the 6-month-old rhizomes (59.41 %) and 3-month-old leaves (57.82 %), with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 55.8, 86.4, and 98.5 μg/mL, respectively, compared to that of α- tocopherol (84.19 %; 44.8 μg/mL) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (70.25 %; 58.6 μg/mL). The highest FRAP activity was observed in 9-month-old rhizomes, with IC50 of 62.4 μg/mL. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Z. zerumbet extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria ranged from 30 to >100 µg/mL. Among the bacterial strains examined, Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to the leaf extract of Z. zerumbet, with MIC of 30.0 μg/mL and other strains were sensitive to the rhizome extracts.

CONCLUSIONS

Three- and 9-month-old plants are recommended when harvesting the leaf and rhizome of Z. zerumbet, respectively, in order to obtain effective pharmaceutical quality of the desired compounds.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. alighasemzadeh@upm.edu.my.Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shahr-e- Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27004511

Citation

Ghasemzadeh, Ali, et al. "Variation in Secondary Metabolite Production as Well as Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Zingiber Zerumbet (L.) at Different Stages of Growth." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 16, 2016, p. 104.
Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Ashkani S, et al. Variation in secondary metabolite production as well as antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) at different stages of growth. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:104.
Ghasemzadeh, A., Jaafar, H. Z., Ashkani, S., Rahmat, A., Juraimi, A. S., Puteh, A., & Muda Mohamed, M. T. (2016). Variation in secondary metabolite production as well as antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) at different stages of growth. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16, 104. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1072-6
Ghasemzadeh A, et al. Variation in Secondary Metabolite Production as Well as Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Zingiber Zerumbet (L.) at Different Stages of Growth. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Mar 22;16:104. PubMed PMID: 27004511.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Variation in secondary metabolite production as well as antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) at different stages of growth. AU - Ghasemzadeh,Ali, AU - Jaafar,Hawa Z E, AU - Ashkani,Sadegh, AU - Rahmat,Asmah, AU - Juraimi,Abdul Shukor, AU - Puteh,Adam, AU - Muda Mohamed,Mahmud Tengku, Y1 - 2016/03/22/ PY - 2015/08/06/received PY - 2016/03/02/accepted PY - 2016/3/24/entrez PY - 2016/3/24/pubmed PY - 2016/11/2/medline KW - Antibacterial KW - Chalcone synthase enzyme KW - DPPH KW - FRAP KW - Flavonoids KW - Phenolic acids KW - Zingiber zerumbet (L.) SP - 104 EP - 104 JF - BMC complementary and alternative medicine JO - BMC Complement Altern Med VL - 16 N2 - BACKGROUND: Zingiber zerumbet (L.) is a traditional Malaysian folk remedy that contains several interesting bioactive compounds of pharmaceutical quality. METHODS: Total flavonoids and total phenolics content from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of Z. zerumbet at 3 different growth stages (3, 6, and 9 months) were determined using spectrophotometric methods and individual flavonoid and phenolic compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Chalcone Synthase (CHS) activity was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disc diffusion method. RESULTS: Highest content of total flavonoid [29.7 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry material (DM)] and total phenolic (44.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DM) were detected in the rhizome extracts of 9-month-old plants. As the plant matured from 3 to 9 months, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) decreased in the leaf, but increased significantly in the rhizomes. Among the secondary metabolites identified, the most abundant, based on the concentrations, were as follows: flavonoids, catechin > quercetin > rutin > luteolin > myricetin > kaempferol; phenolic acids, gallic acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid > cinnamic acid. Rhizome extracts from 9-month-old plants demonstrated the highest CHS activity (7.48 nkat/mg protein), followed by the 6-month-old rhizomes (5.79 nkat/mg protein) and 3-month-old leaf (4.76 nkat/mg protein). Nine-month-old rhizomes exhibited the highest DPPH activity (76.42 %), followed by the 6-month-old rhizomes (59.41 %) and 3-month-old leaves (57.82 %), with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 55.8, 86.4, and 98.5 μg/mL, respectively, compared to that of α- tocopherol (84.19 %; 44.8 μg/mL) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (70.25 %; 58.6 μg/mL). The highest FRAP activity was observed in 9-month-old rhizomes, with IC50 of 62.4 μg/mL. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Z. zerumbet extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria ranged from 30 to >100 µg/mL. Among the bacterial strains examined, Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to the leaf extract of Z. zerumbet, with MIC of 30.0 μg/mL and other strains were sensitive to the rhizome extracts. CONCLUSIONS: Three- and 9-month-old plants are recommended when harvesting the leaf and rhizome of Z. zerumbet, respectively, in order to obtain effective pharmaceutical quality of the desired compounds. SN - 1472-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27004511/Variation_in_secondary_metabolite_production_as_well_as_antioxidant_and_antibacterial_activities_of_Zingiber_zerumbet__L___at_different_stages_of_growth_ L2 - https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-016-1072-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -