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Zika virus in the Americas: Early epidemiological and genetic findings.
Science 2016; 352(6283):345-349Sci

Abstract

Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015, and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. We performed next-generation sequencing to generate seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Results of phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, which we estimated to have occurred between May and December 2013, more than 12 months before the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV-endemic areas, as well as with reported outbreaks in the Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however, no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this correlation does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology of this emerging virus in the Americas.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-000, Brazil. Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS UK.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS UK.Instituto Adolfo Lutz, University of São Paulo, Brazil.Instituto Adolfo Lutz, University of São Paulo, Brazil.Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS UK.Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS UK.Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS UK.Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.Instituto Adolfo Lutz, University of São Paulo, Brazil.Instituto Adolfo Lutz, University of São Paulo, Brazil.Instituto Adolfo Lutz, University of São Paulo, Brazil.Instituto Adolfo Lutz, University of São Paulo, Brazil.Instituto Adolfo Lutz, University of São Paulo, Brazil.Instituto Adolfo Lutz, University of São Paulo, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS UK. Metabiota, San Francisco, California 94104, USA.Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS UK.Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS UK.Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.Centre of Post Graduation in Collective Health, Department of Health, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil.Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-000, Brazil.Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-000, Brazil.Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-000, Brazil.Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-000, Brazil.Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-000, Brazil.Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-000, Brazil.Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-000, Brazil.Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-000, Brazil.Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-000, Brazil.Laboratório de AIDS and Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Laboratório de AIDS and Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Laboratório de AIDS and Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Toronto, Canada.Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Canada.Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brasília, Brazil.Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brasília, Brazil.Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS UK. Metabiota, San Francisco, California 94104, USA.Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, 67030-000, Brazil. Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará State, Brazil.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27013429

Citation

Faria, Nuno Rodrigues, et al. "Zika Virus in the Americas: Early Epidemiological and Genetic Findings." Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 352, no. 6283, 2016, pp. 345-349.
Faria NR, Azevedo RDSDS, Kraemer MUG, et al. Zika virus in the Americas: Early epidemiological and genetic findings. Science. 2016;352(6283):345-349.
Faria, N. R., Azevedo, R. D. S. D. S., Kraemer, M. U. G., Souza, R., Cunha, M. S., Hill, S. C., ... Vasconcelos, P. F. C. (2016). Zika virus in the Americas: Early epidemiological and genetic findings. Science (New York, N.Y.), 352(6283), pp. 345-349. doi:10.1126/science.aaf5036.
Faria NR, et al. Zika Virus in the Americas: Early Epidemiological and Genetic Findings. Science. 2016 Apr 15;352(6283):345-349. PubMed PMID: 27013429.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Zika virus in the Americas: Early epidemiological and genetic findings. AU - Faria,Nuno Rodrigues, AU - Azevedo,Raimunda do Socorro da Silva, AU - Kraemer,Moritz U G, AU - Souza,Renato, AU - Cunha,Mariana Sequetin, AU - Hill,Sarah C, AU - Thézé,Julien, AU - Bonsall,Michael B, AU - Bowden,Thomas A, AU - Rissanen,Ilona, AU - Rocco,Iray Maria, AU - Nogueira,Juliana Silva, AU - Maeda,Adriana Yurika, AU - Vasami,Fernanda Giseli da Silva, AU - Macedo,Fernando Luiz de Lima, AU - Suzuki,Akemi, AU - Rodrigues,Sueli Guerreiro, AU - Cruz,Ana Cecilia Ribeiro, AU - Nunes,Bruno Tardeli, AU - Medeiros,Daniele Barbosa de Almeida, AU - Rodrigues,Daniela Sueli Guerreiro, AU - Queiroz,Alice Louize Nunes, AU - da Silva,Eliana Vieira Pinto, AU - Henriques,Daniele Freitas, AU - da Rosa,Elisabeth Salbe Travassos, AU - de Oliveira,Consuelo Silva, AU - Martins,Livia Caricio, AU - Vasconcelos,Helena Baldez, AU - Casseb,Livia Medeiros Neves, AU - Simith,Darlene de Brito, AU - Messina,Jane P, AU - Abade,Leandro, AU - Lourenço,José, AU - Alcantara,Luiz Carlos Junior, AU - de Lima,Maricélia Maia, AU - Giovanetti,Marta, AU - Hay,Simon I, AU - de Oliveira,Rodrigo Santos, AU - Lemos,Poliana da Silva, AU - de Oliveira,Layanna Freitas, AU - de Lima,Clayton Pereira Silva, AU - da Silva,Sandro Patroca, AU - de Vasconcelos,Janaina Mota, AU - Franco,Luciano, AU - Cardoso,Jedson Ferreira, AU - Vianez-Júnior,João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves, AU - Mir,Daiana, AU - Bello,Gonzalo, AU - Delatorre,Edson, AU - Khan,Kamran, AU - Creatore,Marisa, AU - Coelho,Giovanini Evelim, AU - de Oliveira,Wanderson Kleber, AU - Tesh,Robert, AU - Pybus,Oliver G, AU - Nunes,Marcio R T, AU - Vasconcelos,Pedro F C, Y1 - 2016/03/24/ PY - 2016/02/18/received PY - 2016/03/16/accepted PY - 2016/3/26/entrez PY - 2016/3/26/pubmed PY - 2016/4/29/medline SP - 345 EP - 349 JF - Science (New York, N.Y.) JO - Science VL - 352 IS - 6283 N2 - Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015, and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. We performed next-generation sequencing to generate seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Results of phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, which we estimated to have occurred between May and December 2013, more than 12 months before the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV-endemic areas, as well as with reported outbreaks in the Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however, no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this correlation does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology of this emerging virus in the Americas. SN - 1095-9203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27013429/Zika_virus_in_the_Americas:_Early_epidemiological_and_genetic_findings_ L2 - http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=27013429 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -