Clinical Experience of Transcatheter Closure for Residual Ventricular Septal Defect in Pediatric Patients.Congenit Heart Dis 2016; 11(4):323-31CH
Open cardiac surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for repair of ventricular septal defect (VSD). The inherent risks and complications associated with open surgery and the incidence of postoperative residual VSD are significant disadvantages of the open surgical approach.
To evaluate the methodology and efficacy of transcatheter closure of postoperative residual VSD in children.
Patients with postoperative VSD who underwent percutaneous device closure in the period from August 2010 and February 2014 in our center were analyzed retrospectively. Twelve children, including 8 males and 4 females, with mean age of 8.13 ± 5.39 years (range 0.67-17 years) and mean weight of 29.63 ± 20.86 kg (range 5.5-66 kg) were included in the study.
Ten cases had residual shunts situated at the margin of the patches while the other two had residual shunts because of multiple muscular VSD. The mean VSD diameter was 3.84 ± 1.86 mm (range 2.3-8.7 mm). On cardiac catheterization, the reported mean pulmonary circulatory blood volume/systemic circulation volume (Qp/Qs) ratio was 1.86 ± 0.91 (range 1.1-4.25) and the mean pulmonary artery pressure was 25.92 ± 12.42 mm Hg (range 7-52 mm Hg). Successful transcatheter closure was obtained in all twelve patients with postsurgery residual VSD. Two cases with residual muscular VSD underwent retrograde catheterization via the femoral artery while one case with residual VSD located at the lower margin of the patch was accessed via the internal jugular vein. The mean procedure time was 81.25 ± 25.86 minutes (range 40-120 minutes). There was no evidence of residual VSD, and no instances of new-onset valvular regurgitation were reported, with the only two exceptions being patients who had multiple muscular VSDs where clinically insignificant residual shunts were detected.
Our retrospective study highlights the potential safety and therapeutic efficacy of transcatheter approach for closing postoperative residual VSD in children.
More robust studies with longer-term follow-up of outcomes are required to firmly establish the safety profile and respective indications for use of various occluder devices for treating different categories of residual VSD.