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Predictors of postconcussion syndrome in collegiate student-athletes.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a public health problem, especially among student-athletes. Whereas most concussions resolve by 2 weeks, a minority of patients experience postconcussion syndrome (PCS), in which symptoms persist for months. The objective of this study was to elucidate factors predictive of PCS among a sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes in the academic years 2009-2010 to 2014-2015.

METHODS

The SRC data originated from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) in the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 academic seasons. The NCAA ISP is a prospective database made up of a convenience sample of schools across all divisions. All SRCs are reported by certified athletic trainers. The PCS group consisted of concussed student-athletes with concussion-related symptoms that lasted ≥ 4 weeks. The non-PCS group consisted of concussed student-athletes with symptom resolution in ≤ 2 weeks. Those with symptoms that resolved in the intermediate area of 2-4 weeks were excluded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression.

RESULTS

During the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons, 1507 NCAA student-athletes sustained an SRC, 112 (7.4%) of whom developed PCS (i.e., concussion-related symptoms that lasted ≥ 4 weeks). Men's ice hockey contributed the largest proportion of concussions to the PCS group (28.6%), whereas men's football contributed the largest proportion of concussions in the non-PCS group (38.6%). In multivariate analysis, recurrent concussion was associated with increased odds of PCS (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.28-3.36). Concussion symptoms that were also associated with increased odds of PCS included retrograde amnesia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.34-5.64), difficulty concentrating (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.23-4.50), sensitivity to light (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.09-3.57), and insomnia (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.30-3.68). Contact level, sex, and loss of consciousness were not associated with PCS.

CONCLUSIONS

Postconcussion syndrome represents one of the most impactful sequelae of SRC. In this study of exclusively collegiate student-athletes, the authors found that recurrent concussions and various concussion-related symptoms were associated with PCS. The identification of initial risk factors for the development of PCS may assist sports medicine clinicians in providing timely interventions and treatments to prevent morbidity and shorten recovery time after SRC.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Center and. Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee;

    ,

    Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Center and.

    ,

    Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark; and.

    ,

    Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Center and. Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee;

    ,

    Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Center and. Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee;

    Datalys Center for Sports Injury Research and Prevention, Indianapolis, Indiana.

    Source

    Neurosurgical focus 40:4 2016 Apr pg E13

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Athletes
    Athletic Injuries
    Brain Concussion
    Female
    Football
    Hockey
    Humans
    Male
    Neuropsychological Tests
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Soccer
    Students
    Universities

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    27032916

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Predictors of postconcussion syndrome in collegiate student-athletes. AU - Zuckerman,Scott L, AU - Yengo-Kahn,Aaron M, AU - Buckley,Thomas A, AU - Solomon,Gary S, AU - Sills,Allen K, AU - Kerr,Zachary Y, PY - 2016/4/2/entrez PY - 2016/4/2/pubmed PY - 2017/2/7/medline KW - AT = athletic trainer KW - ISP = Injury Surveillance Program KW - LOC = loss of consciousness KW - NCAA KW - NCAA = National Collegiate Athletic Association KW - PCS = postconcussion syndrome KW - SRC = sport-related concussion KW - collegiate athletics KW - postconcussion syndrome KW - sport-related concussion KW - traumatic brain injury SP - E13 EP - E13 JF - Neurosurgical focus JO - Neurosurg Focus VL - 40 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE Sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a public health problem, especially among student-athletes. Whereas most concussions resolve by 2 weeks, a minority of patients experience postconcussion syndrome (PCS), in which symptoms persist for months. The objective of this study was to elucidate factors predictive of PCS among a sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes in the academic years 2009-2010 to 2014-2015. METHODS The SRC data originated from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) in the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 academic seasons. The NCAA ISP is a prospective database made up of a convenience sample of schools across all divisions. All SRCs are reported by certified athletic trainers. The PCS group consisted of concussed student-athletes with concussion-related symptoms that lasted ≥ 4 weeks. The non-PCS group consisted of concussed student-athletes with symptom resolution in ≤ 2 weeks. Those with symptoms that resolved in the intermediate area of 2-4 weeks were excluded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS During the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons, 1507 NCAA student-athletes sustained an SRC, 112 (7.4%) of whom developed PCS (i.e., concussion-related symptoms that lasted ≥ 4 weeks). Men's ice hockey contributed the largest proportion of concussions to the PCS group (28.6%), whereas men's football contributed the largest proportion of concussions in the non-PCS group (38.6%). In multivariate analysis, recurrent concussion was associated with increased odds of PCS (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.28-3.36). Concussion symptoms that were also associated with increased odds of PCS included retrograde amnesia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.34-5.64), difficulty concentrating (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.23-4.50), sensitivity to light (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.09-3.57), and insomnia (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.30-3.68). Contact level, sex, and loss of consciousness were not associated with PCS. CONCLUSIONS Postconcussion syndrome represents one of the most impactful sequelae of SRC. In this study of exclusively collegiate student-athletes, the authors found that recurrent concussions and various concussion-related symptoms were associated with PCS. The identification of initial risk factors for the development of PCS may assist sports medicine clinicians in providing timely interventions and treatments to prevent morbidity and shorten recovery time after SRC. SN - 1092-0684 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27032916/Predictors_of_postconcussion_syndrome_in_collegiate_student_athletes_ L2 - http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2016.1.FOCUS15593?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed ER -