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Hepatitis B discrimination in everyday life by rural migrant workers in Beijing.
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016 05 03; 12(5):1164-71.HV

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In China, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a particularly challenging public health issue, with an estimated 90 million chronic hepatitis B carriers accounting for almost 7% of the population. Health-related discrimination can serve as a barrier to prevention and care for infectious diseases, such as HBV, degrade the HBV sufferers' quality of life and limit HBV patients' employment opportunities. While rural migrants account for up to 40% of the total urban population in the developed cities in China, there has been no study of the discrimination behavior of rural migrant workers toward HBV carriers.

OBJECTIVE

This study evaluates the discrimination behavior of rural migrant workers toward HBV carriers and patients and proposes public policy recommendations to address discrimination and stigma.

METHODS

The sample comprised 903 rural adults, aged over 18 years old, who migrated to Beijing. Using a face-to-face interview, we surveyed rural migrants' demographic characteristics, knowledge of HBV and discrimination against HBV carriers. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the study population, HBV stigma and knowledge of HBV. Three discrimination levels (no-mild, medium and severe discrimination) were modeled using multiple logistic regression.

RESULTS

Rural migrants to Beijing had a mean age of 36 years, were overwhelmingly married (91.58%), mostly with a junior high school or lower education (78.05%) and mainly engaged as temporary workers (42.52%) or self-employed (33.78%). Only 30.56% reported that they had been vaccinated against HBV. On the 0-10 discrimination scale, rural migrants rated 6.24, with only 4.54% displaying no sign of HBV-related discrimination. The high discrimination score occurred alongside a low mean knowledge of HBV (7.61 on the 1-22 ranking of HBV knowledge). Multiple logistic regression results suggest an inverse relationship between discrimination levels and HBV knowledge, especially knowledge about treatment and transmission routes. The "fear of being infected with HBV" and being HBV vaccinated was positively associated with HBV-related discrimination. Unemployed rural migrants were more likely to exhibit severe HBV-related discrimination than other occupational groups. Personal attributes, such as gender, age, marital status and education level were not associated with the level of discrimination.

CONCLUSIONS

Knowledge of HBV, its transmission and treatment, and the fear of HBV infection were key features in understanding HBV discrimination by rural migrant workers. To reduce discrimination, HBV public health education campaigns need to focus on both knowledge about HBV and the fear of HBV infection. Such campaigns should target rural migrant subgroups, such as unemployed rural migrant workers.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Center for Health Economic Experiments and Health Policy, School of Public Health, Shandong University , Jinan , Shandong , China.b Academy of Human Civilization and Social Science, Shandong Traditional Chinese Medicine University , Jian , Shandong , China.c Department of Health Management and Health Economics , University of Oslo , Oslo , Norway.d Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China; Beijing Foreign Studies University, Beijing, Guangdong, China; University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou, China; Newcastle Business School, University of Newcastle , Newcastle , NSW , Australia.e UNSW Business School , Sydney , NSW , Australia.a Center for Health Economic Experiments and Health Policy, School of Public Health, Shandong University , Jinan , Shandong , China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27043963

Citation

Leng, Anli, et al. "Hepatitis B Discrimination in Everyday Life By Rural Migrant Workers in Beijing." Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, vol. 12, no. 5, 2016, pp. 1164-71.
Leng A, Li Y, Wangen KR, et al. Hepatitis B discrimination in everyday life by rural migrant workers in Beijing. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016;12(5):1164-71.
Leng, A., Li, Y., Wangen, K. R., Nicholas, S., Maitland, E., & Wang, J. (2016). Hepatitis B discrimination in everyday life by rural migrant workers in Beijing. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 12(5), 1164-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2015.1131883
Leng A, et al. Hepatitis B Discrimination in Everyday Life By Rural Migrant Workers in Beijing. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016 05 3;12(5):1164-71. PubMed PMID: 27043963.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hepatitis B discrimination in everyday life by rural migrant workers in Beijing. AU - Leng,Anli, AU - Li,Youwei, AU - Wangen,Knut Reidar, AU - Nicholas,Stephen, AU - Maitland,Elizabeth, AU - Wang,Jian, Y1 - 2016/04/04/ PY - 2016/4/5/entrez PY - 2016/4/5/pubmed PY - 2017/10/27/medline KW - HBV vaccination KW - cognition KW - discrimination KW - migration SP - 1164 EP - 71 JF - Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics JO - Hum Vaccin Immunother VL - 12 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: In China, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a particularly challenging public health issue, with an estimated 90 million chronic hepatitis B carriers accounting for almost 7% of the population. Health-related discrimination can serve as a barrier to prevention and care for infectious diseases, such as HBV, degrade the HBV sufferers' quality of life and limit HBV patients' employment opportunities. While rural migrants account for up to 40% of the total urban population in the developed cities in China, there has been no study of the discrimination behavior of rural migrant workers toward HBV carriers. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the discrimination behavior of rural migrant workers toward HBV carriers and patients and proposes public policy recommendations to address discrimination and stigma. METHODS: The sample comprised 903 rural adults, aged over 18 years old, who migrated to Beijing. Using a face-to-face interview, we surveyed rural migrants' demographic characteristics, knowledge of HBV and discrimination against HBV carriers. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the study population, HBV stigma and knowledge of HBV. Three discrimination levels (no-mild, medium and severe discrimination) were modeled using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Rural migrants to Beijing had a mean age of 36 years, were overwhelmingly married (91.58%), mostly with a junior high school or lower education (78.05%) and mainly engaged as temporary workers (42.52%) or self-employed (33.78%). Only 30.56% reported that they had been vaccinated against HBV. On the 0-10 discrimination scale, rural migrants rated 6.24, with only 4.54% displaying no sign of HBV-related discrimination. The high discrimination score occurred alongside a low mean knowledge of HBV (7.61 on the 1-22 ranking of HBV knowledge). Multiple logistic regression results suggest an inverse relationship between discrimination levels and HBV knowledge, especially knowledge about treatment and transmission routes. The "fear of being infected with HBV" and being HBV vaccinated was positively associated with HBV-related discrimination. Unemployed rural migrants were more likely to exhibit severe HBV-related discrimination than other occupational groups. Personal attributes, such as gender, age, marital status and education level were not associated with the level of discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of HBV, its transmission and treatment, and the fear of HBV infection were key features in understanding HBV discrimination by rural migrant workers. To reduce discrimination, HBV public health education campaigns need to focus on both knowledge about HBV and the fear of HBV infection. Such campaigns should target rural migrant subgroups, such as unemployed rural migrant workers. SN - 2164-554X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27043963/Hepatitis_B_discrimination_in_everyday_life_by_rural_migrant_workers_in_Beijing_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2015.1131883 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -